Pakistan says troops have killed 140 militants in recent fighting in North Waziristan. Thousands of people have left the regional capital, Miran Shah.
A curfew and road blocks are in place. A BBC reporter was among journalists barred from entering Miran Shah.
Many civilians have been wounded in the clashes, including this local man.
Helicopter gunships have been pounding the town to flush out militants. The main market area in Miran Shah has been severely damaged.
Abdullah is a motor mechanic in Miran Shah. He left the town with his pet monkey and very few belongings.
Most of those leaving had to walk for miles and then wait for transport to nearby towns.
These are said to be the fiercest clashes between the army and pro-Taleban militants since troops went into the area more than three years ago.
The clashes started when militants seized government buildings in Miran Shah. Army patrols are out in force.