Ceremonies have taken place across Russia to mark the fifth anniversary of the Kursk submarine disaster.
Relatives, friends and colleagues lit candles at church services to remember the 118 who died on board.
The disaster in the Barents Sea on 12 August, 2000 shook Russia's faith in its navy and leaders.
The painful anniversary comes days after the crew of a Russian mini-submarine had to be rescued in the Pacific.
In Moscow on Friday, an honour guard paid tribute to victims, while submariners at sea threw wreaths into the water.
Families of the victims were at different services, including the unveiling of a memorial in the town of Kursk itself.
Some of the crew survived the initial explosion on the Kursk, but slowly suffocated in freezing conditions.
Military prosecutors concluded in 2002 that the sailors could not have lasted long enough to be rescued.