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Last Updated: Wednesday, 19 June, 2002, 17:52 GMT 18:52 UK
Q&A: Are mobile phones safe?
Mobile phone users are advised to keep calls as short as possible
The debate over the safety of mobile phones continues to rage.

BBC News Online examines the arguments and the advice being given to mobile phone users.

Are mobile phones safe?

Nobody really knows the answer to this question and it has been the subject of fierce debate for many years.

There is currently no scientific evidence to suggest that mobile phones pose a risk to health.

However, since mobile phones are a relatively new technology that situation could change.

There have been no studies into the long-term effects of using handsets not least because the technology hasn't been around long enough.

What are the possible risks?

There are fears that the electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phone handsets may harm health.

In particular, there have been claims that it could affect the body's cells, brain or immune system and increase the risk of developing a range of diseases from cancer to Alzheimer's.

While there is no evidence to back up these fears, laboratory tests on mice have shown that radiation from mobile phones can have an adverse effect on their overall health.

It is still not clear whether those findings can be applied directly to humans.

A study by scientists in Finland, published in 2002, suggested that the electromagnetic radiation did affect human brain tissue.

But they played down their findings saying more research was needed to see if the effects were the same in living people.

Another study by scientists in Sweden, also published in 2002, claimed to have found a link between analogue mobile phones and brain tumours.

It suggested users of "first generation" phones had a 30% higher risk of developing tumours than people who did not.

However, the findings were controversial and there have been no similar studies into the effects of modern GSM phones.

There have also been reports of people suffering from headaches, fatigue and loss of concentration after using their mobile phones.

However, these claims have not been scientifically substantiated.

What is the UK government's view?

The UK government commissioned a major study into the safety of mobile phones in the late 1990s. The Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones published its report in 2000.

The Stewart report, named after the group's chairman Sir William Stewart, concluded that there were no health risks associated with using mobile phones.

However, it suggested that children should be especially careful about using mobile phones and recommended that they should only use handsets in emergencies.

The recommendation was based on the theory that children could be more at risk from the radiowaves emitted by mobile phones.

This is because their brains are still developing and their skulls are thinner, making it easier for the radiowaves to penetrate them.

In 2002, the government and the mobile phone industry pledged 7.4m to a new research programme into the safety of mobile phones.

Its 15 studies, being carried out by independent scientists, will aim to come up with definitive answers on mobile phone safety.

The latest review of the evidence, carried out by UK government scientists, suggests mobile phones do not harm health.

However, members of the Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation have warned that the situation could change if new evidence emerges.

What is the industry's view?

The mobile phone industry has spent millions of pounds investigating the safety of handsets.

It is adamant that there is no link between the use of mobile phones and any adverse human health effects.

What steps can people take to reduce any risk?

Experts suggest that mobile phone users can take a number of precautions to reduce any possible health risks.

Almost all agree that the best step is to keep mobile phone conversations short and to a minimum.

Many believe that so-called hands free kits reduce the risks by cutting the amount of electromagnetic radiation entering the brain.

They also recommend that users buy phones with external aerials so that it is as far away from the head as possible when in use.

Similarly, it is believed that phones with a long talk time are more efficient and produce less powerful emissions.

Users are also advised against buying handsets with a high "SAR" value, which means it emits more radiation.

Fresh fears over mobile phones
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10 May 02  |  Health
Mobile phone fears 'unfounded'
28 Apr 00  |  Health

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