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Thursday, March 18, 1999 Published at 17:07 GMT


1910-16: The 'winning' of Home Rule to the Easter Rebellion

The Dublin Post Office burns at the height of the rising

Balance of power Two general elections in 1910 result in Liberal governments but with Irish nationalists holding the balance of power. In the rest of Britain the issue is whether the Lords can overrule the Commons; in Ireland it is whether the Lords can continue to block Home Rule.

In November, a month before the second poll, the Ulster Unionist Council under the leadership of Sir Edward Carson forms a secret committee to buy weapons and form an army to resist Home Rule.

Conservative opposition Third Home Rule Bill introduced in 1912 - Conservative leader Andrew Bonar Law promises to oppose it and encourages resistance in Ulster.

On September 28, nearly 500,000 Protestants sign the 'Solemn League and Covenant' to defend Ulster against Home Rule.

UVF formed The Home Rule Bill is passed by the Commons in 1913 but rejected by the Lords. The next day, the Ulster Volunteer Force is formed and begins arming.

Catholics form the Irish Volunteers as a counter-balance and in opposition to proposals that Ulster should remain within the Union.

Preparations for revolt In March 1914, the British Army commander in Ireland, Sir Arthur Paget, asks his officers if they are prepared to force Ulster into joining an independent Ireland. Sixty at the Curragh camp including its commander say they would not - the 'Curragh Mutiny'.

The UVF smuggles in 24,000 rifles and 3m rounds of ammunition in April, bringing their total of rifles to 40,000. The Irish Volunteers smuggle in a small quantity of rifles at Howth three months later. A British regiment tries to stop them, fails and later fires on a crowd of civilians, killing three.

Home Rule and the World War The Home Rule Bill passes the Commons again in May 1914, but war breaks out between Britain and Germany in August. Home Rule becomes law in September, but is shelved for 12 months or until the war is ended, whichever is the longer.


[ image: Widespread enthusiasm for the war]
Widespread enthusiasm for the war
Irish Nationalist leader John Redmond commits the Irish Volunteers to serve in the British Army, believing this would earn Home Rule.

The war drags on longer than expected.

Many Irish regiments serve on the Western Front and at Gallipoli. Carson joins Asquith's war cabinet in 1915.


[ image: The British forces were forced to improvise]
The British forces were forced to improvise
Easter Rising About 1,000 members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seize key buildings in Dublin on Easter Monday, April 24.

They make their headquarters in the General Post Office where Patrick Pearse proclaims an Irish Republic.


[ image: James Connolly: the last of the 15 leaders to be shot]
James Connolly: the last of the 15 leaders to be shot
English troops are shipped to Dublin and five days later, the rebels surrender and are heckled by many Dublin residents as they are led away.

The leaders of the rebellion are executed in May.

Irish nationalist feeling begins to grow as the list of those shot rises to 15.

Ulster exclusion Carson accepts Lloyd George's offer in June of excluding the six north-eastern counties of Ulster from Home Rule.


[ image: Roger Casement (left): hanged as a spy]
Roger Casement (left): hanged as a spy
Casement executed The total of executions from the Easter Rising ends at 16 when Sir Roger Casement, who tried to import weapons for the rebellion from Germany, is hanged in England in August.

Christmas amnesty All those interned as a result of the Easter rebellion are released, including future IRA leader Michael Collins.





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In this section

1997-98: Second IRA ceasefire to the Nobel Peace Prize

1995-96: Clinton's visit and the end of the IRA ceasefire

1993-94 The Downing Street Declaration and the IRA ceasefire

1990-92: Start of the talks process

1988-89: Gibraltar killings and release of the Guildford Four

1985-87: The Anglo-Irish Agreement

1981-84: Hunger strikes and the Brighton bomb

1976-80: The violence continues

1972-75: The failure of Sunningdale

1970-72: Internment and Bloody Sunday

1968-69: The troops are sent in

1939-67: Relative calm before the storm

1923-38: The fixing of the Irish border

1921-22: The Irish Free State and civil war

1917-20: The road to partition

1910-16: The 'winning' of Home Rule to the Easter Rebellion

1850-1909: Parnell, Gladstone and the battle for Home Rule

1695-1850: A time of revolution and the Great Famine

1170-1691: From Strongbow to the establishment of Protestant ascendancy