A chronology of key events:
1918 - After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Slovenia joins the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The old town belies Ljubljana's industrial nature
Ljubljana population: 259,000
"Luvigana" built in 6th century on site of Roman outpost
In Austrian Hapsburg possession from 1277
1929 - The kingdom becomes known as Yugoslavia.
1941 - Slovenia is occupied by Nazi Germany and Italy during World War II.
1945 - At the end of the war, Slovenia becomes a constituent republic of socialist Yugoslavia.
1989 - Slovene parliament confirms the right of the country to secede from the Yugoslav federation.
1990 - First multi-party elections. Milan Kucan becomes president. Overwhelming majority of Slovenes vote for independence in a referendum.
1991 - Slovenia, along with Croatia, declares its independence. The Yugoslav federal army intervenes. Slovene forces defend the country. About 100 people killed. The EU brokers a ceasefire. The Yugoslav army withdraws.
Thousands of nationals of other former Yugoslav republics deprived of rights of residence, property ownership, education, health and welfare services.
1992 - The EU recognises Slovenia's independence, followed by the US. Slovenia joins the United Nations. First parliamentary and presidential elections in the newly independent country. Milan Kucan re-elected president. Janez Drnovsek becomes prime minister.
1993 - Slovenia joins the International Monetary Fund.
1996 - Slovenia signs an association agreement with the EU.
EU, Nato membership
1997 - Janez Drnovsek re-elected prime minister, Milan Kucan re-elected president. The EU opens full membership talks with Slovenia.
1999 - Slovenia, a member of Nato's Partnership for Peace programme, allows Nato to use its airspace during the bombing of Kosovo and Serbia. President Clinton visits in June and says Slovenia is a strong candidate for full Nato membership.
Milan Kucan led Slovenia to independence
Became Slovenian communist leader in 1986
1990: Elected president in first democratic ballot
Stepped down in December 2002
2000 - Janez Drnovsek loses a confidence vote in April; Andrej Bajuk of the centre-right Social Democratic party becomes prime minister. Elections in October see Drnovsek regain power at the head of a four-party coalition.
2002 November- Slovenia one of seven countries formally invited to join Nato at Prague summit.
2002 December - Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek wins presidential elections.
EU summit in Copenhagen formally invites Slovenia to join in 2004.
2003 March - Referendum vote backs both EU and Nato membership.
2003 October - Slovenia objects after Croatian parliament votes to create ecological zone in eastern Adriatic.
2004 February - Parliament introduces law restoring residence and other rights removed from thousands of nationals of other former Yugoslav republics after independence.
2004 March - Slovenia admitted to Nato.
2004 April - Right-wing sponsored referendum rejects law restoring rights removed from nationals of other former Yugoslav republics after independence.
2004 1 May - Slovenia is one of 10 new states to join the EU.
2004 October - Centre-right Slovenian Democratic Party tops poll in general elections. Party leader Janez Jansa sets about forming coalition government.
Maribor: Slovenia's second city was rebuilt after World War II
2005 February - Parliament ratifies EU constitution.
2005 October - Slovene parliament declares ecological zone in the Adriatic with rights to protect and use sea bed.
President Drnovsek calls for independence for Kosovo. Belgrade cancels arrangements for him to visit.
2005 November - Thousands attend rally in Ljubljana in protest at government plans to cut benefits and introduce flat tax rate.
2007 January - Slovenia becomes the first former communist state to adopt the single European currency, the euro.
2007 November - Leftist former diplomat Danilo Turk is elected president.
2008 January - Slovenia becomes the first former communist state to assume the EU presidency.
2008 September - Opposition Social Democrats narrowly come out ahead of PM Janez Jansa's Slovenian Democratic Party in parliamentary elections, but fall well short of an absolute majority.
2008 November - Social Democratic leader Borut Pahor becomes prime minister at the head of a centre-left coalition comprising three other parties.
2009 March - Slovenia becomes last NATO member to ratify Croatia's membership in the alliance, setting aside a dispute over the sea border at Piran Bay.
2009 November - Slovenia lifts its embargo on EU membership talks for Croatia after the two countries sign a deal allowing mediators to resolve their border dispute. Slovenian voters later endorse the deal.
2010 December - Voters in a referendum reject plans to reform public TV.
2011 June - Voters reject pension reform in a referendum, triggering months of political uncertainty.
2011 September - PM Borut Pahor's centre-left coalition collapses after losing confidence vote in parliament. It remains in office as a caretaker government.
2011 December - Newly-formed Positive Slovenia party of Ljubljana mayor Zoran Jankovic scores surprise win in parliamentary elections; PM Borut Pahor's Social Democrats drop to third place, behind the centre Slovenian Democrats.
2011 Janaury - Vote in parliament fails to elect Positive Slovenia leader Zoran Jankovic PM.