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Radovan Karadzic: The charges

Radovan Karadzic, file photo
Charges include genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity

Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic faces trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) on 11 charges of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, allegedly committed during the 1992-1995 Bosnian war.

Mr Karadzic, who was arrested in Serbia last year after more than a decade in hiding, is defending himself and denies all the charges, which allege that he:

COUNTS 1 and 2: GENOCIDE

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted genocide against Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks) and/or Bosnian Croats between March 1992 and November 1995.

The charge sheet refers to the physical destruction of ethnic groups through killings, torture, physical and psychological abuse, rape, other acts of sexual violence, inhumane living conditions, forced labour and the failure to provide adequate accommodation.

It specifically mentions a "joint criminal enterprise" in 1995 to eliminate the Bosniaks in Srebrenica by killing more than 7,000 men and boys, and forcibly removing the women, young children and some elderly men.

COUNT 3: PERSECUTIONS

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted persecutions on political and/or religious grounds against Bosniaks and/or Bosnian Croats in some 20 municipalities between March 1992 and November 1995.

The aim of this persecution was to permanently remove Bosniaks and/or Bosnian Croats from the municipalities, and later to eliminate Bosniaks in Srebrenica.

Methods included arbitrary searches, arrest and detention, forcible transfer, forced labour (including digging graves), harassment, torture, rape, killing, and destruction of houses and sacred sites.

Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats were also used as human shields, removed from employment and denied the right to judicial process.

COUNTS 4, 5 and 6: EXTERMINATION, MURDER

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted the extermination and murder of Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats in the municipalities, the extermination of Bosniaks from Srebrenica, and the mass killing of civilians in Sarajevo by shelling or snipers. Some 10,000 people died during the 44 month siege of the city.

Knew, or had reason to know, that extermination and murder were about to be or had been committed by his subordinates, and failed to stop them or punish the perpetrators.

COUNTS 7 and 8: DEPORTATION, INHUMANE ACTS

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted the forcible transfer and deportation of Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats from the municipalities between March 1992 and November 1995.

In addition, he knew or had reason to know forcible transfer and deportation were about to be or had been committed by his subordinates and failed to stop them or punish the perpetrators.

Many forcibly displaced Bosniaks fled to Srebrenica where, from March 1995, shells and snipers were used to make life impossible for inhabitants and to forcibly remove the population.

COUNTS 9 and 10: TERROR, UNLAWFUL ATTACKS

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted the crimes of terror and unlawful attacks on civilians between April 1992 and November 1995.

In addition, he knew or had reason to know such crimes were about to be or had been committed by his subordinates and failed to stop them or punish the perpetrators.

By using the Sarajevo Forces, he established and implemented a military strategy that used sniping and shelling to kill, maim, wound and terrorise the civilian inhabitants of Sarajevo.

The sniping and shelling killed and wounded thousands of civilians of both sexes and all ages, including children and the elderly.

COUNT 11: TAKING OF HOSTAGES

Planned, instigated, ordered, committed and/or aided and abetted the taking of UN military observers and peacekeepers as hostages between May and June 1995.

In addition, he knew or had reason to know such crimes were about to be or had been committed by his subordinates and failed to stop them or punish the perpetrators.

In order to prevent Nato from conducting air strikes against Bosnian Serb military targets, Bosnian Serb Forces detained more than 200 UN peacekeepers and military observers in various strategic locations to render them immune from air strikes.

Threats were issued that further Nato attacks would result in the injury, death, or continued detention of the detainees, some of whom were assaulted before being released in June 1995.



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