"Yaponchik" served long jail terms in Russia and the US
Doctors are attempting to save the life of the notorious Russian mafia boss known as Yaponchik, after he was shot leaving a Moscow restaurant.
Vyacheslav Ivankov, who served time in Soviet and US prisons, was shot three times in the stomach and seriously injured, investigators said.
A sniper rifle was found abandoned in a vehicle parked nearby.
Mr Ivankov, nearly 70, made headlines four years ago when a Moscow court acquitted him of a multiple shooting.
He had been charged with murdering two Turkish nationals and injuring a third in a Moscow restaurant in 1992.
He was shot around 1920 (1520 GMT) on Tuesday as he left a restaurant on Khoroshevskoye Road, said Anatoly Bagmet of the Moscow prosecutor's office.
The man dubbed Yaponchik (in English: "the little Japanese") served nearly 10 years in a US jail for extortion and a fake marriage before being extradited to Russia to face trial for the Turkish shooting.
In Soviet times, he spent 10 years in jail for gangsterism.