The two sides want to level their trade imbalance, the EU said
China has warned the EU not to interfere in its affairs, at a summit previously delayed by a row over Tibet.
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said the two sides should "stick to the principles of mutual respect and not interfere in each other's internal affairs".
The summit in Prague was due to be held in December but was cancelled by China after French President Nicolas Sarkozy met the Dalai Lama.
Activists have urged the EU to press China over its human rights record.
The summit also addressed trade and global warming.
Both China and the EU want to address their massive trade imbalance, said European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso.
Europe is China's biggest export market, spending 248bn euros (£217bn) on Chinese products last year - more than three times the value of trade going in the opposite direction.
Mr Barroso said both sides saw a "mutual interest" in addressing the imbalance, and also in reaching a global trade deal.
Some trade unions in Europe have argued for more trade barriers to cheap imports from China, saying they are being undercut.
China is determined to resist such calls, but has promised to splash out more of its huge reserves on contracts with European companies, the Associated Press reports.
European business leaders are also demanding greater access to the Chinese economy, which caps foreign investment, and greater policing of copyright.
The two sides were also discussing climate change. Mr Barroso said China would be part of the effort to reach a new global pact on greenhouse gases this year.
China has said it wants to use carbon capture technology to mitigate the effects of its rapidly expanding network of coal-fired power stations.