Mr Fritzl is alleged in 1984 to have lured his daughter into a cellar with windowless soundproofed chambers beneath their house and then raped her repeatedly.
The daughter and three of her seven children were kept captive in the cellar until the case came to light in April last year when one of the children became seriously ill and was taken to hospital.
The BBC's Steve Rosenberg, in St Poelten, says some legal experts think it might be hard to prove the murder charge.
But the charge of enslavement carries a maximum penalty of 20 years and some of the other charges against Mr Fritzl involve sentences of up to 15 years.
While convicts become eligible for parole having served half their sentence under Austrian law, there are other clauses which could prevent an eligible convict walking free if it is considered he could re-offend, our correspondent notes.
Escorted by six policemen and dressed in a light grey, checked jacket and dark grey trousers, Mr Fritzl made the short walk down the corridor from his cell to the courtroom, where journalists tried unsuccessfully to question him before the judges arrived.
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