Russia has published a list of 17 groups it regards as "terrorist organisations", including al-Qaeda and the Afghan Taleban.
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The list does not include the Palestinian group Hamas or the Lebanese guerrilla group Hezbollah, both of which the US views as "terrorist".
Several of the groups named are linked to separatist militants in Russia's North Caucasus or Central Asia.
A Russian secret service boss said the 17 groups threatened the Russian state.
Yuri Sapunov, head of anti-terrorism at Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB), said Hamas and Hezbollah were not regarded as "terrorist" groups worldwide.
But Russia took account of international lists of "terrorist" groups when exchanging intelligence with other secret services, he added.
Among those on the Russian list is Hizb ut-Tahrir, a radical Muslim group which wants an Islamic Caliphate across Central Asia and the Middle East. It is also targeted by the authorities in Uzbekistan.
The list also includes: the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Party of Turkestan, the Congress of the Nations of Ichkeria and Dagestan, Jamaa al-Islamiya and the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba.
Mr Sapunov said the main reasons for inclusion on the list were:
- Activities aimed at changing Russia's constitutional order through violence, including terrorist methods
- Links to illegal armed groups and other extremist organisations operating in the North Caucasus
- Association with, or links to, organisations regarded as terrorists by the international community.