The French people have rejected the European Union's proposed constitution.
The political debate did not coalesce along traditional party lines.
Official campaigning began two weeks before the vote
Both the main parties - the government centre-right UMP and the opposition Socialists - were officially in favour of the constitution, but there were also prominent dissidents in each party.
The parties' traditional supporters were also split, particularly in the case of the Socialist Party.
Click on the names below to see where the various political players stood.
President Jacques Chirac
President Jacques Chirac and the leadership of his governing conservative UMP - including Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin and party president Nicolas Sarkozy - said Yes would be the "best possible" choice for France, and that the French people had nothing to fear from it.
Mr Chirac said the treaty was needed to keep the EU strong and defend its interests against the power of the US or of India and China. He denied the constitution would establish a free-market economic model for the EU which might threaten France's social model.
He said a vote against the text would be disastrous - it would damage the European project and destroy the country's influence in Europe.
France's Socialist Party and its leader, Francois Hollande, argued that the constitution was a step forward and was more "socialist" than previous treaties.
Among the arguments it put forward in favour of the text were that it would: make the Charter of Fundamental Rights legally enforceable, increase the frequency of majority voting, and would enshrine full employment and "social progress" as EU goals.
The party leader said a "No" vote would play into the hands of eurosceptics, and that Europe's future was at stake.
Veteran Socialist politicians Jack Lang, Jacques Delors, Simone Weil and Lionel Jospin were involved in the party's campaign.
Union for French Democracy
The centre-right Union for French Democracy (UDF) and its leader, Francois Bayrou, made the rare decision to join forces with the UMP to help the "Yes" campaign.
Mr Bayrou said the constitution gave France "the means to defend the European social model". The party said a "No" vote would mean the end of Europe as a political force.
Some 100 business leaders, including Michel Pebereau, the chairman of BNP Paribas and business think-tank the Institut de l'Entreprise, and Michel Combes, the executive director of France Telecom, signed a petition in favour of the constitution. They said rejecting the treaty would destroy France's economy and threaten the principles of social protection.
Medef, the powerful employers' federation, refused to declare itself publicly, but said a poll of its 1,200 members showed "a vast majority" in favour.
The Council of France's Christian Churches gathers together Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox churches.
It argued in favour of the constitution, on the basis that it would bring about "significant improvements to the existing treaties" and place people at the heart of Europe.
Much of the media
Most French newspapers and magazines did not come out openly in favour of the "Yes" campaign, but they tended to follow official party lines, which were generally in favour. Only the far-left national communist paper, l'Humanite, came out against.
The country's highest court rejected an appeal by the "No" campaign for more "fairness" in the media coverage after they produced evidence that state and privately-owned media were giving massively disproportionate coverage to the "Yes" campaign.
The "No" campaign relied on word-of-mouth, the internet, blogs and fly-posting to get their message across.
Socialist Party dissenters
Former Socialist prime minister and Socialist Party number two Laurent Fabius came out against the constitution. The self-styled "first minister of the 'No' vote" spearheaded Socialist opposition to the treaty, arguing that it did not guarantee the kind of "social Europe" he believes it should.
He also said it would weaken Europe and frustrate the workings of the Union's institutions, that it failed to protect French public services, and that the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights would have only a limited effect.
Danielle Mitterrand, the widow of former Socialist President Francois Mitterrand, was among a number of prominent Socialists to join Mr Fabius' campaign, along with some dissatisfied members of the ruling UMP.
Movement for France
The Catholic, right-wing anti-European party, the Movement for France (MPF), is headed by Philippe de Villiers.
He said the constitution would pave the way for Turkey's accession to the EU, which he opposes. He also argued that the text would give too much power to the EU's institutions.
The far-right National Front (FN) and its leader, Jean-Marie Le Pen, led a modest campaign against the constitution, which they said would endanger France's sovereignty and national identity.
The party also argued that the constitution would worsen France's economic difficulties, which it blamed on the EU and its policies. It believes France should pull out of the EU.
The Communist Party, and the communist newspaper l'Humanite, joined forces with Socialist opponents of the constitution, to argue that the text was too economically liberal.
They said rejecting the treaty would pave the way for negotiations to create "another Europe", which is less economically liberal and less in thrall to big business.
The left-wing peasants' union and its former president, Jose Bove, argued for a "No" vote on the grounds that the constitution would impose an economic model based on the needs of big business, instead of the people.
They also said it ignored the needs of farmers, and would make the EU more bureaucratic.
Attac, an anti-globalisation collective headed by Jacques Nikonoff, campaigned for a "No" vote, saying that the constitution would give "neo-liberal" economic policies a constitutional basis.
They said France would lose control of how it runs its social services.
They called for the constitution to be rewritten, to promote "a Europe that is truly European, democratic, social, environmental".