EU nations and their Mediterranean neighbours have agreed on a code of conduct to combat terrorism - but they failed to define the term.
Spain and the UK put terrorism high on the agenda
The code - announced after talks in Barcelona - condemns terrorism in all its forms and calls for an exchange of information about terrorist networks.
But disputes dogged the 35-nation Euro-Med conference.
UK Prime Minister Tony Blair announced a five-year work programme to revitalise the Euro-Med partnership.
EU leaders had wanted the summit to state that self-determination is no justification for terrorism, while Arab delegates had insisted on recognising the right to resist occupation.
Focus on terrorism
Critics say the absence of a definition of "terrorism" undercuts the power of any agreement, the BBC's Jonny Dymond reports from Barcelona.
But Mr Blair insisted that the spirit of the code of conduct was more important.
The Euro-Med meeting marked a decade of co-operation between the neighbouring countries.
It brought together the 25 EU members plus Turkey, Israel, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, the Palestinian Authority, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.
Apart from Turkey and the Palestinian Authority, leaders from Arab and North African states, as well as Israel, were unable to attend the summit and sent lower-level delegations instead.
"We confirm that we will condemn terrorism in all its manifestations without qualification (and) reject any attempts to associate terrorism with any nature, culture or religion," said the two-page code of conduct.
"The threat that terrorism poses to the lives of our citizens remains serious and terrorist attacks seriously impair the enjoyment of human rights," the pact said. The delegations stressed their "determination to eradicate it".