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Tuesday, June 8, 1999 Published at 16:50 GMT 17:50 UK

World: Europe

Analysis: Breaking the stalemate

Robin Cook (far left) called on Belgrade to cooperate "without conditions"

By Diplomatic Correspondent Barnaby Mason

Kosovo: Special Report
The two key problems in the complex diplomatic dance that finally produced the resolution were the composition and command of the international force, and the sequence of events to get it in place.

UK Foreign Secretary Robin Cook said the G8 agreement ended the game President Milosevic had been trying to play: to re-negotiate in the Security Council the terms of the peace settlement he had accepted last week.

Chain of command

[ image: Nato is now watching for signs of a Serb withdrawal]
Nato is now watching for signs of a Serb withdrawal
The draft resolution in itself does not mention Nato, but it incorporates in an annex last week's EU-Russian document accepted by Belgrade - that did specify a unified chain of command with a fundamental role for Nato.

The precise relationship between Nato and the proposed Russian forces is to be decided in separate negotiations.

The resolution authorises UN member states and relevant international organisations to establish an international security presence with all necessary means to carry out its responsibilities.

These include enforcing a ceasefire, ensuring the withdrawal of Serb forces from Kosovo, demilitarising the guerrillas of the KLA and ensuring the safe return of refugees to their homes.

The draft invokes Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which provides for action to enforce the resolution.

War crimes

[ image: The peacekeeping force will pave the way for the refugees to return]
The peacekeeping force will pave the way for the refugees to return
It demands that all parties, including the international force, should co-operate with the International War Crimes Tribunal - which has already indicted President Milosevic for alleged atrocities in Kosovo.

According to the draft, the UN Secretary-General will appoint a Special Representative to supervise an international civil presence: he will co-ordinate closely with the military force but is not given powers over it.

This in effect means that the military command - essentially Nato - will be independent of the UN.

The civil authority will promote substantial autonomy and self-government for Kosovo, including organising elections, and facilitate a political process to determine the territory's future status. But there is no reference to self-determination.

The UN will also be responsible for policing and setting up local police forces.

Projected timetable

The resolution does not specify the sequence of events in securing peace in Kosovo, but Mr Cook has made clear what the intention is:

  • The draft will be circulated at the UN but not put to an immediate vote.
  • Next comes a military agreement between Nato and Belgrade on a timetable for Serb withdrawal.
  • Once the withdrawal is clearly underway, Nato will suspend its bombing.
  • The Security Council, all being well, will then formally adopt the resolution and the international force can enter Kosovo.

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