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Friday, 13 July, 2001, 11:58 GMT 12:58 UK
Flashback to summit flashpoints
The events in Seattle in 1999 are now seen as the archetype of mass protests clashing with an international summit
Protest and violence seem to have become a ritual at most of the recent international political or economic gatherings. BBC News Online looks back at the main incidents.

Anti-WTO demonstrators in Seattle
Despite the headlines, some of the Seattle protests were peaceful
Seattle, December 1999:
The third World Trade Organisation ministerial talks collapsed after delegates failed to reach agreement on a new round of international trade agreements.

On the streets of Seattle, a wide range of protesters battled for three days with riot police, at times bringing the WTO talks to a standstill.

  • Damage: $3m, with business losses of more than $10m
  • Arrests: 500 people
  • Protests: More than 100,000 marched on the conference. Most demonstrations were peaceful, but there was a hardcore of anarchists seeking confrontation with police. The authorities dealt severely, even with peaceful protesters, who interfered with the running of the conference.
  • Security measures: A state of civil emergency was declared. A curfew ran for two nights, and plastic bullets, tears gas, pepper spray, truncheons, and water cannon were all used.

 The BBC's Tony Smith reports


Washington saw colourful, and mostly non-violent, protests
Most of the protests in Washington were good natured
Washington DC, April 2000:
The spring meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund drew about 10,000 protesters.

Although activists failed to shut down the two meetings, as in Seattle, they caused great inconvenience and generated much publicity.

  • Arrests: 1,300 people
  • Protests and security measures: Most of the protests were good natured. There was little violence but some pepper spray was used by police.

 The BBC's Nick Bryant reports


Prague protesters call for debt relief
Protests forced an early end to the Prague World Bank and IMF meeting
Prague, September 2000:
The annual meetings of the World Bank and IMF drew several thousand protesters and sparked two days of violence.

The conference closed a day earlier than planned because of the violence.

Molotov cocktails and paving stones were hurled at police and a group of demonstrators came close to storming a hotel where many delegates were staying

  • Arrests: 400 people
  • Protesters: There were fewer ecological and anti-globalisation protesters than at Seattle, more small left-wing political parties from Germany, Italy, France and Britain.
  • Security measures: Tear gas, water cannon, police helicopters and balaclava-clad marksmen were used.

 The BBC's Peter Morgan reports


Swiss police at the Davos World Economic Forum in Davos
Davos saw a heavy police presence
Davos, January 2001:
Anti-globalisation protesters descended on the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in the Swiss mountain resort of Davos.

A group of 500 protesters, disguised as skiers and some masked, defied a ban on demonstrations to vent their anger.

  • Arrests: None reported
  • Security measures: Water cannon. Armoured vehicles were also used to push crowds away from conference centre.

 The BBC's Jonathan Charles reports


Quebec protester arrested
Anti-free trade protesters descended on Quebec
Quebec City, April 2001:
Violence spilled onto the streets of the Canadian city as it hosted the Summit of the Americas.

Thousands of protesters against free trade gathered.

  • Arrests: 400 people
  • Protesters: Demonstrators started fires, broke shop windows and threw petrol bombs
  • Security arrangements: Police used water cannon, tear gas and rubber bullets.

 The BBC's Nick Bryant reports


London May Day protests
police penned-in protesters for several hours
London, May 2001:
After extensive rioting in 2000, a massive police presence and a well-organised operation prevented any repetition of the chaos.

Riot police penned in 1,500 anti-capitalist protesters on London's main shopping street, only allowing them to disperse slowly in small numbers.

There were minor scuffles and an extended and tense stand-off between police and demonstrators.

London May Day protests
In certain locations the police outnumbered the protesters
Although the police operation was seen as a success, protesters and civil liberties groups complained that legitimate and peaceful demonstrators were prevented from exercising their right to protest.

About 6,000 police were drafted in for the demonstrations. Heavy policing and strict control of muster points prevented any serious clashes or damage to property. At times, police outnumbered protesters

 The BBC's Samantha Simmonds reports


Gothenburg protests
The police in Gothenburg were heavily outnumbered by demonstrators
Gothenburg, June 2001:
European Union leaders held a summit in Sweden to discuss the expansion of the EU in 2004.

Police were unprepared for the protests that hit Gothenburg. They were heavily outnumbered, and three protesters were shot with live ammunition.

  • Arrests: 500 people
  • Damage: Estimated to be millions of dollars. The city's main shopping street was serious damaged
  • Security measures: Barriers, shields and clubs were not enough to contain violent protesters. Dozens of police were injured
  • Protesters: Anti-globalisation and anti-EU protesters threw fireworks and stones at police, and pulled mounted police off their horses. Control was restored on the final day of the summit and peaceful mass protest took place.

 The BBC's Justin Webb reports

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