The couple first filed for divorce in 2007 but later withdrew their petition
Sean Penn, who won this year's best actor Oscar, has filed for divorce from his actress wife Robin Wright Penn.
The couple, who married in 1996, first began divorce proceedings in December 2007, with Wright Penn, 43, citing irreconcilable differences.
But the pair called off divorce plans and reconciled four months later.
The Hollywood couple are seeking joint custody of their two children Dylan Francis, 18, and Hopper Jack, 15. Penn, 48, was previously married to Madonna.
Penn won his second best actor Oscar in February for his role as gay activist Harvey Milk in the eponymous Milk - but eyebrows were raised when he omitted to thank his wife in his acceptance speech.
The star has been nominated for a best actor Oscar five times, winning his first Academy Award in 2004 for his role in Clint Eastwood's Mystic River.
He has also been acclaimed for his work as a director, with credits including The Indian Runner and 2001's The Pledge, in which his wife starred opposite Jack Nicholson.
Robin Wright Penn's films include cult favourite The Princess Bride and Forrest Gump.
She is currently appearing in the big screen thriller State of Play - a remake of the BBC series - with Russell Crowe and Ben Affleck.