Dame Helen Mirren and other British Golden Globe nominees have expressed their delight at being shortlisted.
Mirren, 61, said she felt "extremely honoured" to be considered for her roles in The Queen, TV's Prime Suspect and Channel 4 mini-series Elizabeth I.
"This has been an unprecedented year for me," she said.
Kate Winslet, up for a best actress award for the film Little Children, said she "could not be more thrilled" - but tipped Mirren to win for The Queen.
"She deserves it," she said. "That film is extraordinary."
The Queen - which dramatises the reactions of the Royal Family in the wake of Princess Diana's death - is up for four Golden Globes in total.
Its director Stephen Frears, who was also nominated, said he was "truly delighted" by the news.
Writer Peter Morgan said he would have "a very merry Christmas" thanks to his best screenplay nomination.
Dench is shortlisted for her role in the film Notes on a Scandal
"I am thrilled that a film I have written has been recognised in four such major categories and deeply flattered by the company I find myself in," he said.
"The response to The Queen around the world continues to amaze and startle me".
Mirren said she had been "amazed by the timeliness of The Queen, a story about a leader out of touch with the people, and how the film has struck a chord with audiences, both British and American, and around the world".
"Likewise the roles of Elizabeth I and Jane Tennison [in Prime Suspect] are so very different from each other, but both are powerful, vulnerable and flawed women, and have a strong impact on audiences as well."
"I am grateful to have had such well-written roles and to have worked with wonderful directors, actors and crews," she added.
Though widely tipped to be recognised for her role in Little Children, Winslet said she felt "genuinely surprised" to be shortlisted.
"It's just wonderful," she said. "It still feels like the first time it has happened. I can't tell how happy I feel about this."
London-born actress Emily Blunt is up for two awards
The 31-year-old added that it was "absolutely amazing to be included in the same sentence" as Dame Helen and Dame Judi Dench.
The Oscar winner is nominated for her role as a vindictive schoolteacher in British film Notes on a Scandal.
Dench said she was "incredibly grateful that the HFPA [Hollywood Foreign Press Association] has been able to see past my sinister deeds".
Veteran actor Peter O'Toole, meanwhile, said he was "pleased and honoured" to be up for a best actor prize for his role as an ageing actor in the film Venus.
In a break with tradition, Borat star Sacha Baron Cohen thanked the Hollywood Foreign Press Association on behalf of his fictional Kazakh alter-ego.
"I have been trying to let Borat know this great news, but for the last four hours both of Kazakhstan's telephones have been engaged," he joked.
"Eventually, Premier Nazarbayev answered and said he would pass on the message."
So is actor Chiwetel Ejiofor, pictured here in Tsunami, The Aftermath
British newcomer Emily Blunt said it was "a huge thrill" to be nominated for her supporting roles in film comedy The Devil Wears Prada and the BBC TV mini-series Gideon's Daughter.
Her sentiments were echoed by actor Chiwetel Ejiofor, also up for two awards for the film Kinky Boots and the mini-series Tsunami, The Aftermath.
"I am absolutely thrilled and stunned," said the 32-year-old Londoner. "It's humbling to be nominated amongst such great company."
Hugh Laurie, Sir Ben Kingsley, Bill Nighy and Jeremy Irons are among the other British actors nominated for their TV work.
The winners will be announced at a ceremony in Los Angeles on 15 January.