Brokeback Mountain stars Heath Ledger and Jake Gyllenhaal are among 120 people invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Gyllenhaal and Ledger were both Oscar-nominated earlier this year
Others include the 12-year-old actress Dakota Fanning, German director Werner Herzog and country star Dolly Parton.
British actresses Hayley Mills, Rachel Weisz and Keira Knightley have also been extended membership invitations.
Academy president Sid Ganis said the Oscar-awarding body had become "more selective" since 2004.
He said that only the "most exceptionally qualified candidates" from each of the academy's 14 branches had been invited to join.
Eight of the 120 names won Oscars earlier this year, among them British short film-maker Martin McDonagh. An additional 39 were nominated for awards.
It is customary for nominees to be considered for membership, though an invitation to join is not automatic.
The list of prospective new members includes actors, directors, animators, cinematographers, producers and editors.
The Academy can fill vacancies resulting from death or retirement. But its overall membership must not grow by more than 30 people each year.