A letter in which author James Joyce pleaded with a publisher to buy his first major book Dubliners has sold for £32,265 at Christie's in London.
The letter was written nine years before the book was published
Joyce wrote the letter to Heinemann publishers in 1905 when he was 23 - but his work was turned down and he battled for a decade to have it published.
It was eventually printed in 1914 but Joyce had left Ireland by then as a result of the numerous rejections.
The letter says: "The book is not a collection of tourist impressions".
An edition of the book was due to be published in 1910 - but was burnt by the printers, who felt it was offensive.
Joyce said he wanted Dubliners to be a chapter of Ireland's moral history including stories based on childhood, adolescence, maturity and public life.
By the time the book came out, Joyce and his family were living in Zurich.
Joyce went on to live in Switzerland and France
The letter was part of the Quentin Keynes collection of books and manuscripts, which fetched a total of £3,357,532.
It was one of 50 items relating to Joyce, with the collection selling for a total of £267,851.
A rare copy of Joyce's satirical poem Holy Office made £28,680 and one of only 25 copies of an Obelisk Press edition of poetry collection Pomes Penyeach
sold for £26,290.
Other items sold over the three-day auction included a letter written by David Livingstone and left in a bottle at the mouth of the Zambesi river, which fetched £17,925.
Collector Quentin Keynes, who died last year, was an explorer, wildlife photographer and film-maker.