Page last updated at 12:04 GMT, Thursday, 2 April 2009 13:04 UK
G20 leaders seal $1tn global deal



Barack Obama, Silvio Berlusconi and Dmitry Medvedev pose for the cameras (2 April 2009)

TEXT AND VIDEO (all times GMT+1)

From the G20 summit in London, the news, insights from BBC correspondents, your e-mails, Twitter and the best of the blogs.

2000 With Barack Obama having effectively concluded proceedings, that's all from our live text coverage of the G20 summit. You can keep up to date with the latest developments on the BBC News website. Thanks for your contributions everyone. It looks like we'll be back later in the year for another G20 summit, so do join us then.

1928 Press laughs as Obama says G20 is no Bretton Woods [1944 financial conference], with Churchill and Roosevelt sitting in a room with a brandy.

1926 Obama says US remains largest economy by a considerable margin and most powerful military in the world; he says America can still lead in the world.

Policeman grabs a man in Threadneedle St in London on 2 April 2009
Long arm of the law

1921 Saudi Arabia did not contribute to the $500bn of extra funds pledged to the IMF at the G20 summit, its finance minister tells Reuters news agency.

1911 Saudi Arabia did not contribute to the $500bn of extra funds pledged to the IMF at a G20 summit of world leaders, its finance minister says.

1911 Obama says principles agreed will hold executives accountable. He says shareholders have in the past been sidelined, says rewards will be on the basis of effective growth, but that does not mean the state will be dictating salaries.

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Alex Evans tweets: As Obama turns his head from left to right, there's a mexican wave of camera flashes Read Alex Evan's Tweets

1902 Obama says it would have been crazy to think a short time ago that former mortal enemies could negotiate this swiftly on how to fix world economy; praises "great job" by Gordon Brown at G20.

1900 Obama says this agreement alone is not enough and that what leaders do when they get home is still important. He declines to specify on which issues he had been prepared to compromise to allow agreement to be reached.

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Cheryl Contee tweets: Obama = only leader for whom the press queued in hundreds Read Cheryl Contee's Tweets

1858 Obama cites example of the company Caterpillar in his home state of Illinois, which has been hit by falling export demand, as an example of how G20 communique will help the folks back home.

1852 Obama: US dedicated to forging consensus rather than dictating terms. Translation: No more Bush unilateralism.

1851 Obama to ask Congress in next few days to provide an immediate $448m to help the poorest countries; says it's not just charity, poorer nations are future markets.

1850 Obama underscores his appreciation to Prime Minster Brown and his other G20 colleagues.

1849 Obama says G20 needs to reform failed regulatory systems and must put an end to bubble and bust economy.

1849 Obama says G20 have made enormous strides to improving financial regulation.

1847 Obama says G20 has agreed a series of steps to encourage growth and help prevent a crisis like this happening again.

1844 Obama begins his delayed news conference at the ExCeL centre by saying the G20 summit was very productive and a turning point for the world economy.

e-mail sent in by reader
Phil B, Bedford, UK says: Excellent news! More money for the IMF to help countries in financial difficulty. More regulation to control the people (banks) that put us in this mess so they don't do it again. A good day for 21st century capitalism! Have Your Say

1817 Obama press conference delayed to 1845 BST, is the latest we're now hearing. Wonder what the Great Orator will have to say?

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Paul Seymour tweets: Reading the g20 topic, I feel equally infuriated and apathetic. Protesters/police = packs of frightened people. Mob mentality at it's worst. Read Paul Seymour's Tweets

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Which G20 leaders went AWOL for family photo?

Nick Robinson
The BBC's Nick Robinson blogs: The chancellor of the world exchequer. That is how Gordon Brown appeared today as he delivered his global budget speech at the end of this G20 summit. It all felt so very familiar and yet at the same time so very different. Read Nick Robinson's blog

1752 Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Miliband told the BBC: Two very significant things have emerged: an agreement that we need a deal at Copenhagen on how to tackle climate change at the end of this year, secondly a sense that low carbon and the green recovery is a mainstream part of the discussions.

Robert Peston
The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: It's a historic event that the world's 20 most powerful economies have signed up for these reforms - because they represent the death knell for the Anglo-American doctrine that economies flourish when financial firms are left alone to do as they please. Read Robert Peston's blog

e-mail sent in by reader
Gerardo Fontenla, Madrid, Spain says: More rules and less freedom in the financial system will be of big importance in order to achieve market calm and to reduce customer stress. Don't forget that we the citizens are the ones releasing this money. Have Your Say

Robert Peston
1746 The BBC's Robert Peston says: This process has led to an outcome that I think many people will say is positive. It hasn't solved the crisis and it isn't going to get us out of recession overnight but it's an important stopping point in a long journey.

Steve Schifferes
1740 The BBC's Steve Schifferes says: Red-faced IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn forgets to mention the $250bn of Special Drawing Rights the IMF is getting, until reminded by the BBC. "Oh yes," he said, "I'm embarrassed I forgot that. This is one of the most important elements of all."

Chikako Aso, (L), wife of Japanese PM Taro Aso, Laureen Harper, (2nd L) wife of Canadian PM Stephen Harper and Gursharan Kaur, (2nd R) wife of Indian PM Manmohan Singh, listen to US First Lady Michelle Obama (R) at Royal Opera House in London on 2 April 2009

1731 Reuters news agency reports that Russian President Dmitry Medvedev says the US is ready to discuss different ideas on the missile defence shield.

1727 The BBC's Claire Bolderson says: The money for the IMF is what every one here is talking about. It was much more than anyone expected, and those voices of Mexico, India, Indonesia and Brazil have been heard here.

1722 UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon tells the BBC: These commitments made by G20 leaders must be translated into concrete action. With this unprecedented stimulus package I am quite confident that we will be able to overcome this economic crisis.

The BBC's Mark Easton blogs: Which of the G20 leaders represents best value for money? I thought it might be instructive to find out which of the presidents and prime ministers in London this afternoon gets the fattest pay cheque compared to the size of their countries and their economies. Read Mark Easton's blog

1720 Journalists in ExCeL centre are still poring over the G20 communique, looking for "weasel clauses", anything that could allow governments to wriggle out of commitments.

Robert Peston
1705 The BBC's Robert Peston says: The big chunk of extra money for financial emergency services is good news for all of us because countries going bankrupt would have serious knock-on effects.

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Gordon Brown: 'Today we have reached a new consensus'

1657 The G20 communique resolves to set up a Financial Stability Board to give early warnings of financial risks and predict future crises.

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Philip John tweets: I love how the G20 shows this move to more global co-ordination. How long till we have a global currency? Read Philip John's Tweets

1650 The BBC's Jonathan Marcus says: Everybody will be pleased the promised fireworks didn't emerge and that everybody has been on side for a communique, which in many ways appears to have gone rather better perhaps than many of the pundits might have expected in the days leading up to the summit.

1653 Police have drawn batons to push back protestors at Royal Exchange buildings near Bank. Officers using dogs to pursue a small group.
1651 White House says Obama's news conference might start at 1815 BST or perhaps later.

1639 The BBC's Stephanie Flanders says: The unexpected part of the communique is the $100bn for multilateral development banks such as the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.

1637 German Chancellor Angela Merkel describes the agreement as a very, very good, almost historic compromise that will give the world a clearer financial market architecture, reports AP news agency.

1634 The BBC's Kristina Block says: He can't help it. German Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck closes his statement by saying he thinks it's "very beneficial the G20 communique does not mention any obligation for states to launch further stimulus packages".

1631 The BBC's Andrew Walker at the ExCeL centre says: Gordon Brown clearly does feel he's achieved quite a lot, and in particular he's talking about the end of the 'Washington consensus', which was basically a free market view of the way the international economy would operate, in favour of something rather different.

1628 Brown says Britain is not planning to take advantage of the extra cash available from the IMF.

1626 The BBC's Kristina Block says: Sarkozy started his press conference at exactly the same time as Brown and as the walls between the briefing rooms are temporary and rather thin you can hear Sarkozy talking next door throughout Brown's presser.

1626 Meanwhile, next door, Sarkozy says he's happy with the summit's outcome beyond what he could have imagined.

1616 Brown says the $1tn to IMF and World Bank is in addition to the $5tn of fiscal stimulus that has already been announced by G20 countries.

1615 Gordon Brown says the issues people thought divided us did not divide us at all.

Dominic Casciani
1614 The BBC's Dominic Casciani at Canning Town says: Lots of demonstrators have streamed away from ExCeL, a bit bored with the day. They're penned so far away from the G20 that it's all felt a bit like shouting in a sound-proofed room.

1613 Brown says China has contributed $40bn to the IMF, the EU has put in $100bn and another $100bn came from Japan.

1610 The BBC's Stephanie Flanders says: These are the final numbers now agreed: an extra $500bn for the IMF; $250bn for trade finance; $250bn in new SDRs; $100bn for the multilateral development banks to lend to poor countries; and a $6bn increase in lending for the poorest countries by the IMF. The support for the poorest countries was the last piece of the puzzle that aid groups were waiting for. So the grand total is indeed just over $1.1 trillion.

1609 Brown says there will be another G20 summit later in the year to assess the progress towards achieving the goals of the communique.

1607 Brown says IMF to look into option of selling some of its gold reserves to provide extra funding for poor countries.

1606 Gordon Brown says making available $250bn in trade finance, including $50bn for new trade programme from the World Bank.

1605 Gordon Brown says emerging markets and developing economies to be given bigger voice in IMF and World Bank, leaders of which will be appointed on merit.

1605 Brown confirms a $1tn stimulus has been agreed, including $250bn in Special Drawing Rights.

1601 Brown says banking secrecy will come to an end. He says that hedge funds and credit rating agencies will be more closely regulated.

1601 Gordon Brown pledges to crack down on tax havens.

1601 And wouldn't you know it... both press conferences started at exactly the same time.

1600 The idea that the communique could be ready earlier than scheduled seemed somewhat optimistic. Now we are faced with the prospect that there could be parallel press conferences from Gordon Brown and Nicolas Sarkozy.

e-mail sent in by reader
Javier, London, says: My partner and I live next door to the ExCeL. We felt compelled to stay with friends elsewhere this week. We had to spend hours securing our flat and packing our valuables. It bothers me that all the sympathy appears to be only for the City firms. Have your say

Rory Cellan-Jones
The BBC's Rory Cellan-Jones blogs: Anarchists using iPhones? Or Twitter? Does that really compute? One is a mobile phone that you might think was more of a yuppie toy than a revolutionary tool - the other is a social network used principally by an older, more establishment crowd than, say, Facebook. Read Rory Cellan-Jones's blog

1540 Let's hope today's outcome is better than the last time a Scottish Labour PM held a huge economic summit in London. Ramsay MacDonald hosted dignitaries from 66 nations in 1933 in a bid to stave off the Depression. The meeting broke up without agreement. If I remember correctly, that decade didn't end in hilarity.

1530 BBC diplomatic correspondent James Robbins says: The G20 has eclipsed the G8: the club of the world's most industrialised nations. I think the G20 is the pattern of the future - the largest economies and the emerging and developing economies together.

e-mail sent in by reader
Jan, Sydney, Australia, says: Sometimes you need to get everyone around the table and agree a way forward, and if now is not the time for that I don't know when is. Have your say

Robert Peston
1520 The BBC's Robert Peston says: A chap who knows a lot more about this Special Drawing Rights stuff tells me its not very useful for very poor countries in sub-Saharan Africa. It will be most useful for middle-income, emerging market economies.

1517 The BBC's Joe Lynam says: The German delegation tells me that the G20 will pledge $1.1tn for multilateral organisations such as the IMF.

1510 South African Finance Minister Trevor Manuel tells the BBC: I'm a bit more optimistic than I've been for a very long time.

James Reynolds
The BBC's James Reynolds blogs: The Chinese media has covered every moment of President Hu's trip to London. Of particular interest appears to be his first meeting with Barack Obama. Read more.

Nick Robinson
The BBC's Nick Robinson blogs: He's done it. Gordon Brown has got his trillion. Remember, of course, that this is not a trillion dollars spent now. It is a pledge to make funds available up to that level if countries can show they've met the criteria. Read Nick Robinson's Newslog.

Stephanie Flanders
The BBC's Stephanie Flanders blogs: Here's the issue for Gordon Brown - how do you bring it all home to the UK? How do you show British voters it will make a difference to them? Read Stephanomics.

1501 The BBC's Emily Maitlis says: We are hearing that the closing news conference that we were expecting at 1530 could be starting in the next few minutes.

1457 Latest G20 arrest figures from Met Police: 101 total, made up of 86 until last night/early hours of this morning and 15 since. Including four arrested at Rampart St squat today.

1445 Bob Geldof tells the BBC: It's academic if Sarkozy walks out. Dude - if you've got a problem walk out - who cares? The French national economy in the face of the global one is nothing and I think we're beginning to understand that. National grandstanding is over or at least it should be.

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Alok Jha tweets: Protestors in Exchange Sq taping up messages - tributes to man who died and further claiming police brutality yesterday. Read Alok Jha's tweets.

1443 Global Call to Action Against Poverty founder Kumi Naidoo told the BBC: Right now monitoring the negotiations, they are stuck on virtually every single issue.

Bob Geldof with Emily Maitlis
1441 Bob Geldof, after a diatribe against world leaders, financiers and regulators, turns on demonstrators, telling a blushing Emily Maitlis of the BBC: Protesters should be protesting against themselves because we all sucked on the tit of free money!

1434 Business Secretary Lord Mandelson tells the BBC: I think you will see a major stand taken today against protectionism. I hope what we see is the World Trade Organisation undertaking a monitoring role so that if there are countries that are tempted to go along the protectionist road they cannot do so in privacy.

e-mail sent in by reader
Cityboy, London, UK, says: Do people seriously imagine that there is a shortage of regulation? Have a look at the FSA Handbook - there's plenty there. Hedge fund managers - also regulated. The question is one of enforcement by the FSA of its existing rules. Have your say

1426 A witness to Wednesday's incident in the City when a man died says: I saw him collapse and smash his head and then he was lying there with his eyes wide open. And then a guy in the audience had a megaphone and shouted "police, we need a medic", and within seconds the police had a team of eight people ran forward. And yeah, there was a couple of people throwing bottles and bricks but there was a few other anarchists saying "no, stop this, time out, time out". So within seconds there were no more missiles so the police were with him for a good like two or three minutes before they dragged him back. But as they were dragging him back, then the missiles began.

1424 Bob Geldof at the summit says: The price of failure is beyond comprehension. Normally in summits you get a nice agreement but nobody takes it seriously. We'd better take it very seriously indeed.

Robert Peston
1423 Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Miliband tells the BBC: I'm hoping out of the communique that we should get an ambitious agreement at the end of this year at Copenhagen, which is the successor to Kyoto.

Nick Robinson
1421 The BBC's Nick Robinson says: Only $50bn needed to reach the magic figure of a trillion. Not much between G20 friends. Is it? Read Nick Robinson's Newslog.

BBC correspondent Ben Brown
1415 The BBC's Ben Brown says: There are between 500-600 protesters at the ExCeL Centre, representing everything from the anti-war movement to separatists in Ethiopia.

comment from blogger
Daudi Were writes about African issues on his blog mentalacrobatics.com: As Africans we are under-represented at these summits because we are increasingly irrelevant, have even less power and no force at all (except against other African countries). Read Daudi Were's blog

Robert Peston
1400 The BBC's Robert Peston says: We're hearing the $250bn increase in Special Drawing Rights is at least a ten-fold increase in the current stock. That will allow poor nations to borrow (in a world that won't lend to them) at the US official interest rate of practically zero.

1357 The BBC's Dominic Hurst says: Police in riot gear are detaining around 60 people at a squat in Earl Street in East London. They are questioning them about possible links to yesterday's violence. A crowd of about 30 demonstrators is chanting "shame on you" at police, but the situation is peaceful.

1355 Police have raided two squats looking for people suspected of being involved with yesterday's violence in the City. Police said 80 people were detained at Rampart Street in Aldgate, and Earl Street near Liverpool Street Station.

BBC correspondent Ben Brown
1345 The BBC's Ben Brown says: There are 300-400 demonstrators in a cordon about quarter of a mile from the ExCeL centre. They are quite noisy and quite colourful but very peaceful and very calm.

e-mail sent in by reader
Charles Moore, Aarhus, Denmark says: Obama will have a difficult task domestically if the fiscal rules the French and Germans want are too strong and move the focus away from the US and UK financial centres. Have your say

1343 The BBC's Andrew Walker says: There's talk of big increases in funds for the IMF; one figure emerging in the last hour or so is for a made-up IMF currency to be used for bolstering countries' foreign currency reserves. They're planning to release $250bn of that to help nations weather the financial storm.

1321 Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's spokesman tells the BBC he wants to clarify that Harper was not in the bathroom during the first family photo. Following the morning session, the PM was pulled aside by officials in order to brief him on the latest draft communique and that's why he missed the first family photo.

1314 The BBC's Stephanie McGovern says: Apparently Silvio Berlusconi didn't turn up for the second attempt at the family photo. So still no complete family picture!

Stephanie Flanders
1310 The BBC's Stephanie Flanders says: Note the significance of the $250bn Special Drawing Rights allocation number - that's the maximum increase they could do without the US having to seek approval from Congress. Read Stephanie Flander's blog

1302 The BBC's Emily Maitlis says: It's like the Challenge Anneka of international politics

Robert Peston
1300 The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: The Special Drawing Rights increase is big stuff - and I haven't properly explained the significance. The record $250bn increase in SDRs is shared between all IMF countries, broadly according to their size (on a quota basis). The increase boosts every country's reserves and thus their liquidity. It's particularly valuable for cash-strapped poorer countries or emerging economies. But it's really the equivalent of creating money for all economies, including ours, or for the global economy. Read Peston's Picks.

1257 The G20 leaders are also said to have agreed an increase in the Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) made available by the IMF, which can be converted by national governments into currency to provide a swift injection of liquidity and confidence into their economies.

1255 The European Central Bank has cut its main interest rate by a quarter of a percent to 1.25%. It is the sixth cut since October. The bank is responding to the economic downturn, which has seen unemployment in EU countries which use the euro at a three-year high. Most analysts had been expecting a larger rate cut.

1248 World leaders are still locked in talks trying to reach a deal on a recovery plan for the global economy. Latest reports suggest the resources of the International Monetary Fund could be increased to $750bn. But it's not clear if the French president and German chancellor have succeeded in securing tougher rules on financial regulation.

Robert Peston
1243 The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: The amount of trade credit being promised is $200bn (up from the $100bn minimum pledged in the finance ministers' summit last month). Read Peston's Picks.

Stephanie Flanders
1240 The BBC's Stephanie Flanders blogs: The official explanation is that Mr Harper was in the bathroom, but given what I said yesterday about Canada's squeaky clean record I suspect foul play. They'll be putting him behind a pot plant for the next one... More at Stephanomics.

1228 BBC economics producer Stephanie McGovern says: The "family photo" of the G20 is now being taken again after the Canadian Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, missed it. Apparently, he was in the loo and nobody seemed to notice!

G20 'family photo'
Can you guess where Stephen Harper was meant to stand in the 'family photo'?

1225 UK Chancellor Alistair Darling tells the BBC the talks so far have been "pretty constructive". He says he expects an agreement to be reached on increasing trade guarantees to about $250bn (£171bn), which would be a "big help" to getting world trade moving again. "For a recovery to happen, in here and other parts of the world, we need world trade to be going on - but I think that's one indication of where there's a determination amongst all the 20 countries here to act together," he says.

1216 French free-climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert has attempted to scale the Lloyds building in the City of London as part of a protest. He unfurled a banner and has now returned to the ground.

1205 The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) says it is to "assess" the death of man at a G20 demonstration in London on Wednesday. Investigators will be examining CCTV footage and attending the post-mortem this afternoon, it says in a statement.

Dominic Casciani
1156 The BBC's Dominic Casciani says: I've seen more people turn out to oppose a Tesco supermarket's planning application. This multi-cause demonstration consists of a bloke dressed as a gorilla, various left-wing groups, a polite Ethiopian group and a smattering of NGOs. There is a young woman in a nice sloaney hat gamely struggling under the weight of Socialist Worker banners because she can't find enough people to take them off her hands. Can the G20 see the demo? Let's put it this way: if that famous smoker Barack Obama gets a ciggie break, and if it's up on the roof of ExCeL, and if he just happens to be looking through some binoculars possibly borrowed from his Secret Service detail, he might just might see a flag half a mile away (subject to the mist).

1155 The chairman of the Commission of the African Union, Jean Ping, tells the BBC that he would be making the case for a sell-off of the IMF's gold reserves to provide money for Africa. "We are not asking countries to put their hands in their pockets and give us money because they've promised, promised, promised and done nothing," he says. "[The measure] could be put in place quickly and we could have the money straight away."

1150 If the increase of the IMF's resources by $500bn is agreed, that would effectively triple the amount of resources the institution has to lend to countries in financial difficulty. Some countries, including Japan, the US and the European Union, have already said they will contribute around $100bn each to the fund.

1140 Stuart Fraser from the City of London Corporation says Wednesday's security operation was a success and the day had a "good carnival atmosphere" on the whole. "The high cost is the price of democracy," he added.

Robert Peston
The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: Okay, here's some news (well, sort of). The leaders are close to agreement on the big money questions. There will be a significant increase in the resources of the IMF, the emergency rescue service for ailing economies. The increment in funding for the IMF could be nearer $500bn than the $250bn already pledged as a minimum. Read Peston's Picks.

1137 A spokesman for the UN Millennium Campaign tells the BBC it is vital the rich countries represented at the summit keep their aid commitments and that the commitments made today are monitored.

e-mail sent in by reader
Gary L, Lincolnshire, UK, says: Whether it's the G20 summit or something else, at least people are talking. Give it a chance before we condemn it. If it achieves little, then condemn it. Have your say

comment from blogger
Jotman, one of the bloggers inside the ExCeL centre, says he is impressed at the sheer scale of the operation: You could fit two 747 jets inside the media center area of the conference center alone! There are 2,800 journalists and 50 bloggers reporting on the event from inside. Read Jotman's blog

Steve Schifferes
1130 The BBC's Steve Schifferes says: UK Treasury Minister Stephen Timms has said the G20 will definitely introduce sanctions against tax havens - countries which the OECD judges do not comply with rules on financial transparency. He said the only question was the timing of the sanctions - how long countries would have to comply. And he added that the issue was not a red herring because many of the toxic assets that caused the financial meltdown were concealed in such tax havens. The strong line will please the French and Germans.

BBC Europe editor Mark Mardell blogs: The president of France and chancellor of Germany are delivering a message to London and Washington that will be popular at home. There is a widespread feeling that this crisis was created by a financial system that gave priority to vast profits and the acceptance of immense borrowing of money as a way of life. And that it was clearly marked "made in the USA". But this intercontinental financial missile has devastated their towns and cities and they want economic arms talks right now. Read Mark Mardell's Euroblog.

text message
1122 The BBC's Dominic Casciani texts: At G20 trying and failing to get anywhere near ExCeL Centre. Perimeter lockdown is extraordinary. Been around the same roundabout three times. Good news for the cabbie!

1115 UK Secretary of State for International Development Douglas Alexander tells the BBC that agreement of co-ordinated fiscal action, and tougher and more transparent regulation would send a powerful and significant signal to world markets.

BBC correspondent Ben Brown
1115 The BBC's Ben Brown outside the ExCeL Centre says: There's room for between 5,000 and 6,000 protesters. Police have been surprised that there are only about 200 protesters here at the moment. One policeman suggested anarchists did not get up very early.

A man in a kilt walks past police near the Excel Centre (20 April 2009)

1108 BBC business correspondent John Moylan says: If measures are implemented with unity and confidence, there's a good chance of a short, sharp slowdown rather than a long and prolonged one.

1100 Mark Malloch Brown, a UK foreign office minister and senior negotiator for the British government, at the summit tells the BBC there is "a lot of drama and hard work ahead during the rest of this morning". "It's nearly there but I think politicians and leaders have arrived with so much vested in this, they've got to go home with a success," he says. "There's a lot more political capital caught up in this process than is normal with most summits."

1056 It's straight down to business as Gordon Brown opens by outlining the work plan for the next few hours. The BBC's Robert Peston says the broad message of the prime minister's statement is that the leaders will all say that the erection of barriers to trade will be resisted at all costs.

1052 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown, with Barack Obama to his right and UK Chancellor Alistair Darling to his left, is poised to make his opening statement.

1049 The leaders are starting to take their seats. Others are still working the room as TV cameras continue to roll.

Steve Schifferes
1048 The BBC's Steve Schifferes at the ExCeL centre says: A massive media scrum of photographers, journalists and cameramen surrounds Bob Geldof as he arrives at the summit to urge it to give more help to Africa. He says that the real problem is that the poorest 50% are so underrepresented at gatherings like the G20. He urges a $50bn stimulus plan for Africa. Only one of the G20 countries (South Africa) is from that region.

Dominic Casciani
The BBC's Dominic Casciani outside the Bank of England, says: It's clean-up day. Workers are slowly putting things right here. The traffic is slowing and life is returning to normal, as gardeners replant the box hedging and clear away the trampled daffodils. The statue of Wellington resplendent upon a horse is covered with graffiti, but that's about to be washed.

Graffiti outside the Bank of England (2 April 2009)


1035 Gordon Brown is flanked by Brazil and China's leaders. Germany and France hover on the sidelines. The photographers are given five seconds at the most to get their shot.

1034 G20 leaders gather for a team photo. Body language experts have their eyes peeled.

1033 The BBC's Claire Bolderson says: All the leaders are assembling for what they call a family photo, a photo of them all before they start talking. Any minute after that we are going to get opening statements from the British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, and that's when the talking actually starts.

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G20 leaders gather for the traditional 'family photo'

1032 Dan Price, a former assistant to President George W Bush for international economic affairs, tells the BBC he thinks there will be a combination of statements of principle and some concrete details at the summit. "These could include enhancing the resources of the IMF and firm action on pushing back against protectionism," he adds.

1030 World Bank President Robert Zoellick tells the BBC that it has just issued a new forecast which predicts a global economic contraction of 1.7%. "We haven't seen numbers like that since World War II - that really means the Great Depression," he says. "We believe that the lower growth will lead to some 200,000 to 400,000 babies dying this year. So the overall effects are dramatic."

text message
1019 The BBC's Dominic Casciani at the London Stock Exchange texts: No more protest here. Alternative monopoly players gone home saying they need a sit down and a nice cup of tea.

BBC correspondent Ben Brown
1014 The BBC's Ben Brown says: The protest outside the ExCeL Centre has a very different flavour from Wednesday's. One banner on display belongs to the African People's Socialist Society, while another demands: "Stop silent genocide in DR Congo".

1013 When asked about the mood among the G20 leaders, BBC business editor Robert Peston says: "They're all rather jolly from what I can gather. I get the sense that the supposedly intractable issue of tax havens has been sorted."

1008 Talks are scheduled to begin at 1025 with the summit host, Gordon Brown, making the opening speech. After three hours, lunch will be served. Then, leaders will hopefully put the finishing touches to the final communique during another hour of discussion, before a closing press conference due at 1530.

e-mail sent in by reader
Opakunle Raphael Abayomi, Nigeria, says: Jobs have been lost, people have cut their spending, demand has shrunk, remittance to third world countries has noticed a significant decline. The G20 protesters should be patient so that a lasting solution will be provided. Have your say

1000 The world's main industrial and developing nations, the G20, have begun a summit in London aimed at rescuing the global economy from its worst crisis since the 1930s. Leaders are discussing what is expected to be an agreement to tighten controls on banks and other financial institutions. France and Germany in particular are pressing for a tough regulatory system to prevent any repeat of the crisis. There are also proposals to act against tax havens. The UK and US have emphasised the need for further stimulus measures.

0953 George Parker, of the Financial Times, tells the BBC that the British public are not worried whether this summit will boost Gordon Brown's popularity. Instead, he says, they want to know whether the world will turns towards protectionism.

0950 South African President Kgalema Motlanthe tells the BBC he wants developing economies to be given extra help at the summit. "We are here to put across the position of the developing world, particularly with regards to the need to protect jobs because it's the impact on the real economy which affects ordinary working people," he says. "And, therefore, if we're to find an everlasting solution we must develop a response that is inclusive of working people."

0945 A Bank of England report says the credit crunch is showing signs of easing, with lenders indicating they will make more credit available to individuals and businesses in the coming three months.

0943 European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso tells the BBC he thinks differences between the G20 leaders are not as marked as they may seem. "There is a real willingness to have convergence at the end of this summit and so I really believe that at the end we'll have a consensus around the two points that sometimes appear as differences: the stimulus of the economy and regulation," he says.

0934 US President Barack Obama has a busy day ahead of him. As well as the summit talks, he is holding bilateral meetings with the leaders of South Korea, India and Saudi Arabia. He is cramming all that in before a press conference at 1745.

Obama nd South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak hold a one-to-one meeting

Robert Peston
The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: The message of the UK's business secretary is that Prime Minister Gordon Brown is being "greedy" - greedy for massive additional resources for the IMF for bailing out beleaguered economies; greedy for hundreds of billions of commitments to finance drooping world trade; greedy for a substantial injection of funds into poorer developing nations. Read Peston's Picks.

0920 The working breakfast is well under way. Once the last of the croissants is polished off, there will be a group photo of the leaders. The event is scheduled for 0935, but the summit is running late.

tweet
Tim tweets: The demonstration at London Stock Exchange is pretty pathetic. Even the dwindling number of protesters look bored. Read Tim's tweets.

0916 The BBC's Rob Broomby, who is outside the summit venue, says: There's a handful of protesters here, maybe 10 at the most. They're been kept back by a ring of steel. There's every hope there will be no repetition to the kinds of scenes we saw in the City of London on Wednesday. We can even see police in boats out on the Royal Victoria dock - nobody's going to get anywhere near.

0913 The BBC's Richard Westcott outside the London Stock Exchange says: The protest planned for 0700 in the City of London is getting off to a late start. Only 40 demonstrators have made it out so far. Looks like some of the protesters needed a lie-in.

0910 UK house prices rose for the first time in 16 months during March, according to the latest survey from the Nationwide building society. They were up by 0.9%. However, officials say it is too early to talk of a sustained recovery in the housing market.

0906 BBC business correspondent John Moylan says about four or five drafts of the final communique are currently being circulated.

Nicolas Sarkozy and Angela Merkel chat athe G20 summit (2 April 2009)


0905 Lord Mandelson says that three outstanding issues at the summit are trade finance, funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and tax havens. He says that we will need to wait and see on the language on the fiscal stimulus packages. He adds off camera that Prime Minister Gordon Brown wants bigger numbers on all of these matters, reports the BBC's Steve Schifferes.

0903 The UK's Business Secretary, Lord Mandelson, tells the BBC there is nothing manufactured about the reported disagreements among G20 leaders: "I wish they were manufactured, then they would be easily ironed out but they have persisted overnight," he says.

0902 UK Treasury sources have revealed that agreement has been reached with the tax haven of Liechtenstein to co-operate over tax disclosure with other authorities, reports the BBC's Hugh Pym at the ExCeL Centre. British officials visited Liechtenstein yesterday to discuss how this might be implemented. Our correspondent says this agreement will feature as part of the final summit communique, in which a crackdown on tax havens will feature strongly.

Robert Peston
The BBC's Robert Peston blogs: Thank goodness for le president, M Sarkozy. His tantrum yesterday, his near-threat that he would stomp out if the excesses of Anglo-American financial capitalism aren't definitively tamed, created the almost convincing impression that the stuff which really matters in today's communique hasn't been stitched up and choreographed in the preceding days by diligent officials. Read Peston's Picks

e-mail sent in by reader
PCMyrs, Tonbridge, UK, says: Get a grip on financial regulation! Hedge funds, short selling, spread betting, leveraged buyouts must be curtailed. Regulate them hard! Better, ban them! Have your say

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Diana Atkin, Canada, says: The only thing the G20 should achieve is that in future there should be no sole world economic power shaping global economics. Have your say


James Robbins
The BBC's James Robbins says: Arguments over the balance to be struck between pumping more money into shrunken economies and far tougher rules and restrictions for financial institutions mean the final communique will be worked on word-by-word throughout the summit. The leaders will work around a vast table with 64 seats, while their "sherpas", or chief negotiators, constantly refine and update the joint texts on computer screens in a nearby room.

0838 Canada's Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, is the last to arrive.

0833 Silvio Berlusconi arrives. The Italian prime minister appears to want to get straight down to business, waving a piece of paper in front of Gordon Brown with some consternation. Not sure what was on it, possibly a newspaper article or the schedule for the day.

The BBC's Andrew Walker says: Mr Sarkozy has been specially vocal in calling for this summit to mark the start of a stronger system of international financial regulation, but German Chancellor Angela Merkel shares his views. Drafts of the communique do include plans to tackle executive pay arrangements that encourage excessively risky trading and to require banks to hold more capital to protect themselves against losses. There is also a proposal to name and apply sanctions to tax havens. But Mr Sarkozy has said that he wants the language on regulation to be tougher.

0831 Nicolas Sarkozy pulls up. Momentary confusion follows over where to stand for the noisy crowd of photographers. There's the odd smile between the French and British leaders, as well as some furrowed brows. "He's always my friend," President Sarkozy says.

tweet
thecityblog tweets: Monopoly takes shape at the Stock Exchange. Who's going to play the banker? Read thecityblog 's tweets.

Blogger Moorgate Mercurius took this photo of an over sized monopoly board being used by protesters this morning outside the Stock Exchange
Blogger Moorgate Mercurius took this photo of an over-sized monopoly board being used by protesters outside the London Stock Exchange on Monday

0826 The Brazilian president, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, known as Lula back in Brazil, stops for a quick chat with Gordon Brown before posing for the cameras. Ahead of the summit, President Lula said the world's poor should not be forced to pay for the global financial crisis. "It is a crisis caused and encouraged by the irrational behaviour of white people with blue eyes," he said, "who before the crisis appeared to know everything, but are now showing that they know nothing."

0822 Chinese President Hu Jintao is next in.

0820 Angela Merkel, German chancellor and thorn in the side of Gordon Brown, arrives. "I'm the last already?" she asks. "No, no, no..." he mutters.

0815 A cheerful-looking Dmitry Medvedev, Russia's president, is greeted by Gordon Brown. The British PM must surely be getting jaw and arm ache with all that smiling and handshaking.

0812 Argentina's President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner arrives.

Steve Schifferes
0810 The BBC's Steve Schifferes says: The huge press area at the ExCeL Centre for the written media - with hundreds of desks - is still mostly deserted. It may be that the security problems around journalists arriving earlier have delayed many journalists who were hoping to arrive earlier. Staff are passing out G20 notepads and pens in compensation.

0808 Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan joins his fellow leaders at the ExCeL Centre.

0807 Dutch Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende and European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso arrive. But there is still no sign of the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, or French President Nicolas Sarkozy.

0805 The managing director of the International Monetary Fund, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, arrives next. On the eve of the summit, he told the BBC that there was plenty the IMF and world leaders could agree to do. "I think they all understand that this crisis is for a large part a crisis of confidence and they need in their own hand to show leadership," he said.

0803 Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gets a firm handshake from Britain's leader on arrival.

0759 Next to arrive is the Spanish PM, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero

0755 South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, World Trade Organisation director-general Pascal Lamy, and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh are next in.

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Eder Medina, Lima, Peru, says: The G20 summit is now the hope of millions of people from all over the world despite the fact that this summit has triggered popular outcry. Have your say

0751 Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd is greeted by Mr Brown.

0749 World leaders are trickling in, with Japan's Prime Minister Taro Aso the latest to arrive.

0748 The BBC's Richard Westcott says: One man tried to climb a monument in Paternoster Square, not far from the London Stock Exchange until the police stepped in. Other than that, it's quiet there are the moment, with 40 protesters and a game of Monopoly under way.

A man is led away by Police in Paternoster Square (2 April 2009)

0746 The Ethiopian Prime Minister, Meles Zenawi, has arrived. Mr Zenawi is leading a delegation from the New Partnership for Africa's Development (Nepad). The African Union is backing international calls for stricter regulation of banks, hedge funds and tax havens and that it is urging the international community to help create a financial stimulus package for Africa, the AFP news agency reports.

0744 Mr Obama looks relaxed as he is greeted by the British leader. The two of them flash their smiles for the cameras.

0742 US President Barack Obama pulls up outside the venue in "The Beast", his now famous armoured limousine. On Wednesday, he stressed that the world leaders were not going to agree on every point, but said the summit was an opportunity not to be missed.

0740 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown arrives with his Thai counterpart, Abhisit Vejjajiva, followed by Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek. The Czech Republic currently holds the EU presidency.

0739 The BBC's Philip Hampsheir at the London Stock Exchange says there are 150 police officers outside, about the same number of reporters, and just 15 protesters.

0735 So far, Robert Zoellick, president of the World Bank, and Mario Draghi, chairman of the Financial Stability Forum, have arrived.

text message
0730 The BBC's Steve Schifferes texts: Media buses in lock-down for head of state arrivals

0728 The arrival of the leaders is imminent. Reporters are keeping an eye on the sky for Barack Obama flying in by helicopter. Things will kick off with a working breakfast before the talks begin in earnest.

Bridget Kendall
The BBC's Bridge Kendall says: Barack Obama's first foray across the Atlantic as US president to bolster ties with Europeans met its first hiccup on Wednesday. The blunt warning from the French and German leaders that they will not back down from demanding tough new rules for banks, hedge funds and tax havens was aimed above all at America. It exposes a deep fault line between countries who back US-style capitalism with its light regulatory touch and those - more critical - who argue now is the time for a radical global overhaul. There is not much time left for Gordon Brown, as host, to ensure he has got them all on board. The summit ends this afternoon with the signing of a joint communique.

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0715 The BBC's Peter Machin at ExCeL texts: Connaught Bridge leading to ExCeL closed. Reason unknown, rumoured to be protester action on bridge. Diversions.

People walk past the G20 logo in the main press centre of the ExCel Centre in London (1 April 2009)

e-mail sent in by reader
Paul, Manchester, UK, says: What do the protesters think the world leaders are 'in town' to do? They are here to find answers and resolve the issues. Protesting is not helping, it's just causing problems, heightening security risks and generally wasting the tax payers' money. Have your say

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Evie, Canterbury UK, says: I was at the protests because I believe that the leaders meeting at this summit aren't going to come up with solutions that will solve the problems we are facing in the world today. I can only hope that we aren't totally dismissed. Have your say

Hugh Pym
0655 BBC chief economics correspondent Hugh Pym says: We had a rendezvous in a desolate car park at 0530 this morning to get the press bus, followed by a bizarre journey around Docklands to the media accreditation centre. Then another bus journey through a bleak landscape to an underground car park. Finally, we entered the vast ExCeL Centre, where we were given coffee and bacon butties. Life's not so bad. I've just heard that some buses have been held up, delaying other journalists. At least I am in.

0652 Further protests are expected today - this time the London Stock Exchange and the ExCeL Centre will provide the backdrop. There will also be anti-war demonstrations. A massive security operation will be in force once again, with hundreds of police officers on duty at possible flashpoints around the city.

0650 Tragically, a man involved in the protests died on Wednesday evening - after collapsing. The man, thought to be in his 30s, was found unconscious near the Bank of England. Police say bottles were thrown at officers who tried to help him.

0648 The Metropolitan Police say four people arrested during Wednesday's protests have been charged - three with possessing a bladed weapon, and one with assault, the Press Association reports.

Protester shouts outide Bank of England (1 April 2009)

0645 A BBC correspondent says a major security problem at the ExCeL Centre in the Docklands has stopped members of the media checking in for an hour. Time is ticking, however, as the leaders are due to begin arriving in five minutes ahead of a working breakfast.

0638 On Wednesday, there were several violent incidents in London as thousands of demonstrators took to the streets to protest over capitalism, climate change and war to coincide with the summit. Some smashed their way into a branch of the Royal Bank of Scotland, trashing equipment and daubing graffiti on the walls. Nearly 90 people were arrested. But the protests were generally peaceful.

0635 The G20 is meeting against a background of grim forecasts from several international agencies suggesting that the world economy will contract this year for the first time since World War II. The US and UK would like to see continental European countries to do more to stimulate growth, but for both Germany and France the big issue is more financial regulation to prevent any repetition of the crisis.

0630 Good morning and welcome to our live coverage of the G20 summit in London. We will be updating this page throughout the day, bringing you insights from BBC correspondents, some of your emails, Twitter, and the best of the blogs. As ever, we would love to hear what you make of the summit's developments, or the widespread protests expected nearby.




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