Investors have reacted positively to efforts to stem the financial turmoil
Wall Street shares rocketed 11% on Monday as investors welcomed fresh moves to deal with the worldwide financial crisis.
The Dow share index surged 936 points, ending at 9,387 points, after falling dramatically in the previous week.
Investors were helped by news the US government wanted to put in place its $700bn bank bail-out quickly.
This followed fresh moves by European governments to inject extra cash into their own banks.
Investors have generally welcomed the moves by governments.
"Sometime last week it seemed like we faced Armageddon, so to have a co-ordinated plan on stabilising banks is huge progress," said Jack Ablin, at Harris Private Bank in Chicago.
DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE: 13 October 2008
*All Times GMT
In Washington President George W Bush said he was confident that the challenges which faced governments trying to curb the market turmoil could be overcome.
"We can work our way through these challenges and America will continue to work closely with the other nations to co-ordinate our response to this global financial crisis," he said.
On Monday US Treasury and Federal Reserve Bank officials met the chief executives of some of America's biggest banks, to work out details of the US government's $700bn (£400bn) bail-out package.
The US has said it was also getting ready to follow in Europe's footsteps and purchase stakes in financial institutions.
On Monday the US Treasury announced it was set to buy stakes in a "broad array" of financial firms.
European governments have said they are putting up to 1.7 trillion euros ($2.3 trillion; £1.3 trillion) to protect the continent's banks through guarantees and other emergency measures.
The sums are a maximum, and might not all be spent if the financial crisis eases.
So far Germany has approved a bank rescue plan worth up to 500bn euros, France will spend about 350bn euros, the Netherlands has pledged 200bn euros, Spain 100bn euros, and Austria 85bn euros.
Italy said it would spend as much as was needed, without giving any exact figures.
The bulk of the European money will be used to guarantee lending between banks - part of a plan agreed this weekend by the 15 nations that use the euro.
The cash will also be used to take stakes in ailing banks.
UK bank move
In other key developments on Monday:
- The UK government said it would inject up to £36bn of taxpayers cash into Royal Bank of Scotland, Lloyds TSB and HBOS
- The news lifted UK shares, with the main FTSE 100 index advancing 325 points or 8.2% to 4,256
- However, shares in the three UK banks affected end down heavily, with HBOS losing 27%, Lloyds TSB falling 14% and Royal Bank of Scotland slipping 8.3%
- Germany's Dax index added 518 points, or 11% to 5,062, while France's Cac 40 climbed 355 points, or 11% to 3,531
- Some central banks said they would offer financial institutions an unlimited amount of short-term dollar loans to help stem the crisis
- The Icelandic stock exchange said share trading would remain suspended until Tuesday due to continuing "unusual market conditions"
"Today marks another momentous day in both UK and global financial history," said Keith Bowman, equity analyst at Hargreaves Lansdown Stockbrokers.
HAVE YOUR SAY
It seems Mr Brown and Co. have no choice in this matter and these takeovers are necessary, but its very wrong that it is the tax payer that should have to do this
Anthony Halpin, Aberdeen
"The hope in the markets is that political leaders have finally 'grasped the nettle', with substantial and coherent rescue plans now being formulated and rolled into place."
The cash injection moves by Germany, France and Spain follow after talks between all 15 eurozone countries in Paris on Sunday.
The two-fold plan involves guaranteeing lending between banks and taking stakes in financial institutions - similar to the bank rescue in the UK announced last week.