The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has said it will fine BP $92,000 (£44,700) for breaches after a fatal blast in Texas in 2005.
BP has taken extensive steps to improve safety since the incident
The explosion and fire at BP's Texas City refinery killed 15 people and injured 180 staff.
The citations, including one for a violation OSHA said may have led to another major accident, come from its post-blast monitoring of the plant.
BP has two weeks to contest the citations and penalties.
A spokesman said the firm was studying the allegations before deciding how to proceed, but added that many of the points made were already being addressed.
BP is being investigated by the US Chemical Safety Board (CSB) and US Justice Department over the explosion which killed 15 people an injured 180.
And an internal report in May said that BP executives should be sacked for failing to prevent a fatal blast.
US investigators have already rapped the company over the blast.
The CSB blamed lax safety culture at the firm as well as cost-cutting, bad management culture and worker fatigue.
BP also has faced legal suits from workers and their families and paid millions in settlements.
The aftermath of the Texas City blast is not the only safety investigation that BP faces in the US.
In addition, the firm had to close part of its Prudhoe Bay oil field in Alaska earlier this year, after leaks were discovered in one of its pipes.