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Last Updated: Friday, 8 July, 2005, 08:05 GMT 09:05 UK
G8 at a glance
Protesters in Edinburgh
A pop concert in Edinburgh crowned the Make Poverty History campaign
The leaders of the world's eight richest nations are gathered at the G8 summit in Gleneagles, Scotland.

On the agenda are: Africa, climate change, global trade, oil prices and foreign policy.

The leaders are:

  • George Bush, US President
  • Tony Blair, UK PM
  • Silvio Berlusconi, Italian PM
  • Junichiro Koizumi, Japanese PM
  • Gerhard Schroeder, German Chancellor
  • Paul Martin, Canadian PM
  • Jacques Chirac, French President
  • Vladimir Putin, Russian President


    All eight leaders have met anti-poverty campaigners including musicians Bob Geldof and U2's Bono.

    But will campaigners and African nations get what they want?

    A woman with her child at a feeding station in Niger
    Africa wants all its nations to get full debt relief

    So far the African nations have been promised:

  • Full debt relief for the 18 poorest
  • A doubling of US aid by 2010 to $8.6bn (4.8bn)
  • EU commitment to increase aid to 0.56% of GDP by 2010 and 0.7% by 2015

    But they want:

  • Debt relief for all African nations
  • Trade barriers to be lifted

    On Wednesday Mr Geldof sang at a Live8 concert in Edinburgh in support of the Make Poverty History cause.

    Mr Geldof said he was not complacent about getting what he wanted and that there was all to play for at the G8.

    Thousands of peaceful protesters have converged on Gleneagles - but a small minority yesterday tried to penetrate the security cordon after violence flared in the morning near an eco-camp in Stirling, Scotland.

    Police have now placed a security cordon around the camp, having made 100 arrests on Wednesday.


    Wind turbines
    Clean technology is backed by the US

    Leaked versions of the climate change communique suggest that little progress has been made - with US views on the Kyoto protocol hardly shifting.

    "While uncertainty remains in our understanding of climate science, we know enough to act now," the leaked draft said.

    Environmental action groups say the G8 summit was a "lost opportunity", but a Greenpeace spokesman said "at least we haven't moved backwards on the environment".

    The leaked communique also acknowledged that the UN framework on climate change - of which the Kyoto protocol is the best-known part - is the "appropriate forum for negotiating the future of the multilateral regime on climate change".

    The US previously said it wouldn't sign up to a Kyoto-style treaty with goals for reducing emissions that harm the environment.

    The US wants:

  • More spending on clean technologies
  • More involvement from developing nations
  • No negative impact on the US economy
  • No Kyoto-style emission-curbs treaty

    France wants:

  • Kyoto-style action plan for curbing emissions

    The G5 nations of China, Brazil, Mexico, India and South Africa have been brought into the discussions.

    The International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization are also represented.


    G8 protester in balaclava
    An eco-camp in Stirling has been cordoned off after anti-G8 protests

    G8 leaders will look at ways of reducing global trade barriers.

    Anti-poverty campaigners want concessions on:

  • Curbing US cotton subsidies
  • Curbing US sugar subsidies
  • EU farm subsidies

    However, Mr Bush has always said he will only reform the US' farming subsidies when the European Union does the same.


    Oil refinery in Saudi Arabia
    High oil prices are causing global concern

    The impact of the high oil price and currency fluctuations on global trade will be discussed.

    The G8 leaders will also debate a range of foreign policy issues including:

  • Iraq
  • Middle East peace process

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