Mr Fukuda has come under fire for his handling of domestic issues
Japan's lower house has backed a confidence motion in Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda, a day after the upper house passed a censure against him.
The ruling coalition used its majority in the more powerful lower house to support its beleaguered leader.
On Wednesday, the opposition-controlled upper house adopted the first - non-binding - censure against a prime minister since World War II.
It wants Mr Fukuda to call a snap election but he has ruled that out.
The opposition won control of the upper house in July 2007, and has used its power to block a series of government proposals, throwing the country into unprecedented political deadlock.
At the same time, Mr Fukuda's approval rating has fallen dramatically amid rows over lost pension records and a new compulsory health insurance scheme for the elderly.
The opposition accuse him of mismanaging domestic policy and have urged him to step down or call a general election.
But on Wednesday the top government spokesman rejected this idea.
"The prime minister isn't thinking of dissolving parliament or resigning. We are not in such a situation," Nobutaka Machimura said.