The manners of people in Beijing have improved following a campaign to end anti-social behaviour ahead of next year's Olympics, researchers have said.
The anti-queue jumping campaign is still going on
A People's University of China study found rates of spitting, queue-jumping and littering had all fallen since the end of 2005, Xinhua news agency said.
But the study's author said Beijing still had plenty of room for improvement ahead of the Olympics.
The city has already sent letters on etiquette to four million residents.
The authorities have also held campaigns encouraging people to smile and wait in line.
These efforts will continue right up to August 2008 when one-and-a-half million visitors are expected to attend the Olympic Games.
'A lot to do'
The study said a "civic index" measuring good behaviour had improved by 3.85 points and now stood at 69.06. The authorities have set a target of 72-78 points to be reached by the games.
"The government and citizens still have a lot of things to do to improve their public behaviour," Xinhua quoted Professor Sha Lianxiang, who headed the study, as saying.
A campaign against queue-jumping was launched on 11 February in the city, under the slogan: "It's civilised to queue, it's glorious to be polite."
Thousands of volunteers went out on the streets to try to persuade people to wait in line in order to present a better image to visitors.
Hundreds of people gave clenched fist salutes to pledge their allegiance to the campaign.
The campaign will take place in Beijing on the 11th day of every month from now on.