Authorities in China's capital Beijing are to implement a "one dog" policy for all households as part of a campaign to combat rabies, state media has said.
Owning a dog is set to become more complicated in Beijing
Owning a second dog will be outlawed in much of the capital, and anyone keeping unlicensed dogs faces prosecution.
China blames a recent surge in rabies on the popularity of pet ownership, and owners' failure to vaccinate them.
The new move will draw comparisons with China's long-standing one child policy, designed to stem population growth.
China's official Xinhua news agency said that under newly issued regulations, abandoning dogs has become an offence.
The circular also forbids owners from taking their dogs to markets, shops, commercial areas, hotels, parks, public greens, schools, hospitals, exhibition halls, cinemas and theatres, gymnasiums, community gym zones, amusement parks, railway waiting rooms and sightseeing areas.
Rabies has become the biggest cause of death among infectious diseases in China, and the Xinhua report said 318 people died of the disease in September alone.
Fears of the disease's spread prompted two local governments to carry out mass dog culls earlier this year.