Page last updated at 07:40 GMT, Wednesday, 10 March 2010

The Bali bombing plotters

The BBC profiles the key men executed, jailed or accused of involvement in the 2002 Bali bombing, in which 202 people died.


Amrozi bin Nurhasyim, dubbed the "smiling bomber" by the media for his demeanour during court appearances, was the first of the Bali bomb suspects to go on trial.

He was found guilty of helping to plan and carry out the attacks and was sentenced to death on 7 August 2003.

Amozi in at Batu prison on Nusakambangan island, Indonesia (01/10/2008)
Born July 1962
From Lamongan, East Java

Police said he admitted to owning the van used to bomb the Sari Club in Kuta, and to buying explosives.

They said he left for Malaysia in the late 1980s and returned in the early 1990s, having met an older brother who gave him religious guidance.

He reportedly studied at an Islamic school in southern Malaysia where two other suspects - Imam Samudra and his older brother Mukhlas - and detained Indonesian cleric Abu Bakar Ba'asyir are all said to have taught.

Amrozi was said to have plotted the bombing with another suspect, Imam Samudra, and to have met him in Bali six days before the bombing.

Along with Mukhlas and Imam Samudra, Amrozi put forward an unsuccessful appeal in 2006 against execution by firing squad, arguing that beheading was more humane.

In October 2008, he warned that there would be "retribution" if he were executed. The execution was carried out on 8 November 2008.

Imam Samudra

Imam Samudra, an Indonesian computer expert, was sentenced to death in September 2003 for his part in organising the Bali attacks, and executed by firing squad alongside Amrozi and Mukhlas.

During the trial, he thanked prosecutors for demanding the death sentence, saying it would bring him close to God.

Imam Samudra surrounded by repoters at Batu prison on Nusakambangan island, Indonesia (01/10/2008)
Born January 1970
From Tasikmalaya, West Java
Computer expert

Imam Samudra, who also operated under the aliases of Fatih, Fat, Kudama, Abdul Aziz, Abu Umar and Heri, was described by police as the bombing "field commander".

During his trial, prosecutors said he chose the target and led planning meetings.

They said he stayed behind in Bali for four days after the attack, allegedly to monitor how the police investigation began.

An engineer with a university education, police claimed that he learned how to make bombs in Afghanistan.

He was also suspected of involvement in a string of church bombings across Indonesia in 2000.

Giving evidence at the separate trial of Indonesian Islamic cleric Abu Bakar Ba'asyir, Imam Samudra said bombings were part of jihad.

He quoted a verse from the Koran as saying: "Fight in the path of Allah against people who are fighting Muslims."

Asked about Christians who died in attacks, he replied: "Christians are not my brothers."

Imam Samudra denied any connection with the regional militant group Jemaah Islamiah.

In 2004, he published an autobiography - entitled "I Fight Terrorists" - justifying his role in the attacks and describing his time fighting in Afghanistan.


Mukhlas, also known as Ali Ghufron, admitted involvement in the Bali attack, but denied that he played a direct role. He claimed he just gave the bombers religious guidance.

Ali Ghufron, aka Mukhlas,at Batu prison on Nusakambangan island, Indonesia (01/10/2008)
Taught at an Islamic school
Older brother of Amrozi
Alleged operations chief of JI

He was found guilty of being the overall co-ordinator of the attacks on 2 October 2003 and was executed on 8 November 2008.

The Indonesian court judges said the charges against him were "legally and convincingly proven", there were no mitigating circumstances and he deserved the maximum sentence of death by firing squad.

Prosecutors had argued that the Islamic teacher, then 43, chaired the preparatory meetings for the attacks, channelled funds to finance it, and approved the targets.

Mukhlas had told a Jakarta court at the earlier trial of Abu Bakar Ba'asyir that he had taken over from Hambali as the operations chief of regional militant group Jemaah Islamiah, which wants to set up a pan-South East Asian Muslim state.

He said he went to Pakistan in 1989, met Arab mujahideen there, and joined them in Afghanistan.

Asked by a judge if he knew Osama Bin Laden, who also served in Afghanistan, Mukhlas said: "Yes, I know him well", but denied Bin Laden had any part in the Bali attacks.

At one point he told the court: "I wish all the world could be one Muslim country."

His younger brother, Amrozi, was said to have described Mukhlas as an inspiration to him, and has told police how he received religious guidance from him.


Jhoni Hendrawan, alias Idris, attends court in Jakarta, Indonesia (25/07/2008)
Born around 1968
Logistics expert
Said he asked God for forgiveness after the attack

Idris, alias Jhoni Hendrawan or Gembrot, admitted taking part in both the Bali attacks and the Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta in August 2003.

However, he was only found guilty of the Marriott attack at the end of his trial on 24 August, and cleared of the Bali bombings.

This was because the court decided a recent ruling on a special terror law rushed into legislation after the Bali attacks meant it could not be used retrospectively to prosecute him for his part in the Bali bombings.

He was described by police as one of the five people who planned the Bali attacks. They said he played a key logistics role, acting as a link between the planners and the field operatives.

He was also accused of gathering funds for the attack, and of organising transport and accommodation for the bombers in the days leading up to the bombings.

Giving evidence in the trial of Mukhlas, Idris said he had detonated the smallest of the Bali bombs - that which exploded near the US consulate, and did not kill anybody - by mobile telephone.

He was arrested in June 2003 after allegedly robbing a bank.

Police said he was counting the money when arrested, and that the cash would have been used for further terrorist attacks.

Ali Imron

Ali Imron shows the trial in Jakarta how bombs were made (August 2003)
Aged 33
Fought in Afghanistan in 1990s
Said he helped build bomb

Ali Imron was found guilty on 18 September 2003 of planning the Bali attacks and sentenced to life in prison.

He is the younger brother of Mukhlas and Amrozi, but unlike his brothers, he expressed remorse for the Bali attacks.

Throughout his trial he appeared in court in a Western-style suit and sat quietly as evidence was read.

He did not contest the charges against him, and co-operated with police.

Shortly after his arrest in January, Ali Imron took part in a police news conference in which he demonstrated how he and others assembled the bombs.

He said he felt sorry for the families of the victims, but that the US and its allies were legitimate targets.

Ali Imron was accused of helping a fugitive Malaysian, Dr Azahari, to build the bomb which destroyed the Sari club, from chemicals and TNT placed inside plastic boxes in a van they parked outside the club.

He was also charged, along with Idris, of teaching a suicide bomber how to detonate an explosives-stuffed vest which exploded in Paddy's Bar across the road from Sari Club.

Dr Azahari Husin

Dr Azahari Husin, a Malaysian, was killed during a raid on a villa in eastern Indonesia by anti-terror police in November 2005.

Azahari Husin
Born around 1957
Malaysian university lecturer
Supervised the bomb making

A married father of two, Azahari was alleged to be Jemaah Islamiah's top bomb-making expert and said by some to be a fanatic, ready to die for his cause.

He had evaded capture at least twice, sometimes escaping only minutes before police arrived.

Azahari had studied in Australia for four years and gained a doctorate from Britain's University of Reading, before becoming a university lecturer in Malaysia.

He was believed to have given bomb making classes to JI militants and to have issued precise instructions on how the massive car bomb used at the Sari club was to be manufactured.

As well as technical bomb making expertise, he was alleged to have been a key figure at the JI planning meeting which selected Bali as a target.

Azahari's death was said to have been a major setback for Jemaah Islamiah, but some Indonesian security officials were disappointed he was not captured alive to face questioning about the organisation.


Born 1970
Javanese technician
Allegedly helped build bombs

Dulmatin, a Javanese electronics expert who was one of the main planners of the bombings, was shot dead during a raid by Indonesian security forces in Jakarta in March 2010.

He was suspected of having worked alongside Azahari Husin to assemble the massive car bomb, as well as the explosives vest used by a suicide bomber who attacked the nearby Paddy's Bar. Police say he triggered the Sari bomb using his mobile phone.

He was believed to have fled to the southern Philippines in 2003 to avoid arrest. The Philippine authorities suspected he was involved in training and advising other militants at secret camps, including members of the radical separatist group, Abu Sayyaf.

The US had offered a $10m reward for Dulmatin's capture.

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