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Timeline: Guatemala

A chronology of key events:

1523-24 - Spanish adventurer Pedro de Alvarado defeats the indigenous Maya and turns Guatemala into a Spanish colony.

1821 - Guatemala becomes independent and joins the Mexican empire the following year.

Relatives of civil war victims try to identify remains before funeral at Zacualpa, 2001
More than 200,000 were killed, or disappeared, in civil war
Conflict raged for 36 years
1996: Rebels, government sign peace deal

1823 - Guatemala becomes part of the United Provinces of Central America, which also include Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua.

1839 - Guatemala becomes fully independent.

1844-65 - Guatemala ruled by conservative dictator Rafael Carrera.

1873-85 - Guatemala ruled by liberal President Justo Rufino Barrios, who modernises the country, develops the army and introduces coffee growing.

1931 - Jorge Ubico becomes president; his tenure is marked by repressive rule and then by an improvement in the country's finances.

1941 - Guatemala declares war on the Axis powers.

Social-democratic reforms

1944 - Juan Jose Arevalo becomes president following the overthrow of Ubico and introduces social-democratic reforms, including setting up a social security system and redistributing land to landless peasants.

Former dictator Efrain Rios Montt on campaign trail, 2003
Efrain Rios Montt era saw some of the war's worst episodes
Born in 1926
1982: Led military coup
2003: Unsuccessful bid for presidency

1951 - Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman becomes president, continuing Arevalo's reforms.

1954 - Land reform stops with the accession to power of Colonel Carlos Castillo in a coup backed by the US and prompted by Arbenz's nationalisation of plantations of the United Fruit Company.

1963 - Colonel Enrique Peralta becomes president following the assassination of Castillo.

1966 - Civilian rule restored; Cesar Mendez elected president.

1970 - Military-backed Carlos Arena elected president.

Human rights violated

1970s - Military rulers embark on a programme to eliminate left-wingers, resulting in at least 50,000 deaths.

1976 - 27,000 people are killed and more than a million rendered homeless by earthquake.

Nobel Prize winner Rigoberta Menchu
Rigoberta Menchu, a campaigner for Mayan rights
Born in 1959
Spent most of 1980s in exile
1992: Awarded Nobel Peace Prize
2004: Joined cabinet as "goodwill ambassador to peace accords"

1981 - Around 11,000 people are killed by death squads and soldiers in response to growing anti-government guerrilla activity.

1982 - General Efrain Rios Montt gains power following military coup.

1983 - Montt ousted in coup led by General Mejia Victores, who declares an amnesty for guerrillas.

1985 - Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo elected president and the Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party wins legislative elections under a new constitution.

1989 - Attempt to overthrow Cerezo fails; civil war toll since 1980 reaches 100,000 dead and 40,000 missing.

1991 - Jorge Serrano Elias elected president. Diplomatic relations restored with Belize, from whom Guatemala had long-standing territorial claims.

1993 - Serrano forced to resign after his attempt to impose an authoritarian regime ignites a wave of protests; Ramiro de Leon Carpio elected president by the legislature.

1994 - Peace talks between the government and rebels of the Guatemalan Revolutionary National Unity begin; right-wing parties win a majority in legislative elections.

1995 - Rebels declare a ceasefire; UN and US criticise Guatemala for widespread human rights abuses.

End of civil war

1996 - Alvaro Arzu elected president, conducts purge of senior military officers and signs peace agreement with rebels, ending 36 years of civil war.

Maya family picknicking
About 60% of the population is of mixed Mayan and European descent

1998 - Bishop Juan Gerardi, a human rights campaigner, murdered.

1999 - UN-backed commission says security forces were behind 93% of all human rights atrocities committed during the civil war, which claimed 200,000 lives, and that senior officials had overseen 626 massacres in Maya villages.

2000 - Alfonso Portillo sworn in as president after winning elections in 1999.

2001 December - President Portillo pays $1.8 millon in compensation to the families of 226 men, women and children killed by soldiers and paramilitaries in the northern village of Las Dos Erres in 1982.

Border talks

2002 September - Guatemala and Belize agree on draft settlement to their long-standing border dispute at talks brokered by Organization of American States (OAS). Both nations will hold referendums on draft settlement.

UN special representative places rose on peace monument, Guatemala City, 2004
Remembering the war dead at Guatemala City's peace monument

2003 November - Presidential elections go to second round. Former military leader Efrain Rios Montt trails in third place, accepts defeat.

2003 December - Conservative businessman Oscar Berger - a former mayor of Guatemala City - wins presidential election in second round.

Guatemala - along with Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras - agrees on free-trade agreement with US.

2004 May - Former military leader Efrain Rios Montt placed under house arrest.

2004 May/June - Major cuts to the army; bases are closed and 10,000 soldiers are retired.

2004 July - $3.5 million in damages paid to victims of civil war. Move follows state's formal admissions of guilt in several well-known human rights crimes.

2004 September - Deadly clashes as police try to evict around 600 squatters from private farm. Eleven people are killed.

Lorry loaded with sugar cane south of Guatemala City
Sugar cane is one of Guatemala's most abundant resources

2004 December - UN mission, set up to monitor post-civil war peace process, winds up. But UN says Guatemala still suffers from crime, social injustice, human rights violations.

2005 March - Government ratifies Central American free trade deal with US amid street protests in capital.

Storm deaths

2005 October - Hundreds of people are killed as Tropical Storm Stan sweeps through, triggering landslides and floods.

2005 November - Guatemala's leading anti-drugs investigator is arrested in the US on charges of drug trafficking.

2006 July - A Spanish judge issues a warrant for the arrest of former military leader Efrain Rios Montt and other former officials over atrocities committed during the civil war.

2006 December - Government and the UN agree to create a commission - to be known as the CICIG - to identify and dismantle powerful clandestine armed groups.

2007 February - Three El Salvador politicians and their driver are murdered near Guatemala City. The trio were members of the Central American Parliament, based in the capital.

2007 May - Guatemala ratifies an international adoption treaty, committing it to ensure that babies are not bought or stolen.

Murders

2007 July - Amnesty International urges the government to ratify the CICIG as a first step towards tackling the culture of impunity it says has contributed to Guatemala's soaring murder rate.

2007 August - International election monitors say they are worried about the high murder rate among political candidates and activists in the run-up to the 9 September polls.

Mayan temple at Tikal, Guatemala
Tikal: One of Guatemala's largest pre-Colombian Maya sites

2007 November - Alvaro Colom of centre-left National Unity of Hope Party wins presidential elections with nearly 53 percent of the vote.

2008 October - Former President Alfonso Portillo is extradited from Mexico to face corruption charges linked to disappearance of $15m (£8.5m) earmarked for Guatemalan defence department.

2008 November - Fifteen bus passengers including a Dutch national are shot dead and then set on fire in eastern Guatemala in what police believe to be a drug-related incident.

2009 May - President Colom denies involvement in murder of a prominent lawyer who in a video made before to his death claimed Colom and others were out to kill him. A UN probe clears Mr Colom.

Trials

2009 September - An ex-paramilitary officer, Felipe Cusanero, becomes the first person to be jailed for the forced disappearance of civilians in Guatemala's civil war.

Severe food shortages. President Colom declares "state of public calamity" to try to mobilise funding.

2009 December - Retired colonel becomes first army officer to be convicted of crimes committed during civil war.

2010 March - Country's police chief and anti-drugs czar are sacked over the theft of cocaine.

2010 May - State of emergency declared after Pacaya volcano erupts.

2010 September - Former President Alfonso Portillo goes on trial on charges of embezzlement, denies the accusations.

2010 October - US apologises for deliberately infecting hundreds of Guatemalans with gonorrhoea and syphilis as part of medical tests in the 1940s. President Colom describes the tests as a "crime against humanity".

2011 April - President Colom and his wife Sandra Torres divorce so that she can stand for election as president.

2011 August - Four former soldiers found guilty of a village massacre become the first to be convicted of rights abuses during the civil war.

2011 November - Former army general Otto Perez Molina of the right-wing Patriotic Party wins presidential elections, takes office in January.

2011 December - President Colom apologises to the relatives of the more than 200 victims of the 1982 massacre in the village of Dos Erres during the civil war.

2012 March - President Perez Molina proposes decriminalising drugs as a way of combatting the illegal narcotics trade.

2012 May - Ex-military leader Efrain Rios Montt faces a second genocide trial when a judge rules he can be prosecuted over the Dos Erres massacre. He was charged in January on separate counts of genocide and crimes against humanity.

2012 July - Dozens are injured, including the ministers of the interior and education, in police clashes in Guatemala City with teacher trainers protesting against having to spend more time studying for the qualifications.



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