More than 20,000 miners have marched into the Bolivian city of La Paz, throwing dynamite on their way, to protest against a proposed tax rise.
Parts of La Paz were paralysed by the blasts and clashes between miners and passers-by. Police said they had seized more than 270 sticks of dynamite.
The miners say the tax would be unfair on small independent co-operatives.
The march went ahead despite a government announcement on Monday that co-operatives' taxes would be frozen.
Officials said the tax increase would be directed at larger private mining companies.
Bolivia's mineral exports were worth more than $1bn (£507m) last year, but the government says it only collected $45.5m in taxes from the mining sector. It is hoping to recoup $80m in mining taxes.
Some 50,000 miners are members of co-operatives. Last year, a group of them were involved in deadly clashes with miners from the state sector over control of a tin mine.
President Evo Morales has said he plans to nationalise the country's mining sector.