Protesters in south-east Bolivia have blocked the only road that links the country with Argentina and Paraguay.
They want more state control over oil and gas firms and say nationalisation has not gone far enough.
Demonstrators object to the fact that the president has renegotiated deals with foreign oil firms rather than take back control of the operations.
The blockade, in the city of Camiri, could disrupt fuel deliveries to the provincial capital, Santa Cruz.
The demonstrators from the Civic Committee of Camiri have said that until YPFB, the state oil firm, is restructured, they will not give up their protest.
It comes three days after the YPFB head quit alleging differences with the government of President Evo Morales.
The president has named former company adviser Manuel Morales Olivera as the firm's new head.
The new contracts with foreign firms are due to come into effect this week.
Bolivia has the second-largest natural gas reserves in South America after Venezuela.