The Bolivian Congress has voted to put former President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada on trial over the deaths of up to 80 people in October last year.
Sanchez de Lozada fled to the US
The violence erupted during protests at government plans to export natural gas.
Mr Sanchez de Lozada, 74, is currently in the US, where he fled after resigning from his post.
Congress voted overwhelmingly for him and 15 other members of his ousted cabinet to be put on trial. The vote was backed by members of his own party.
Congress debated the motion for 12 hours before 126 of the 140 members decided to summon Mr Sanchez de Lozada for trial.
If the case goes ahead, he will become the first democratically elected president of Bolivia to be put in the dock.
The former president was a strident supporter of free-market reforms.
But many Bolivians were angered at plans to export natural gas through Chile, a traditional enemy.
Discontent with the country's economy also contributed to more than a month of violent protests at the end of last year.
Dozens of people were killed in clashes between security forces and protesters.
Opposition parties and labour unions accused the president of authorising excessive force and a campaign of repression against his political rivals.
He denied the accusations.