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Last Updated: Thursday, 8 January, 2004, 02:10 GMT
US to overhaul immigration law
Hispanic workers in the US
More than 60% of illegal workers in the US are Mexican
George W Bush has called for a major overhaul of US law to give legal status to millions of illegal workers.

The plan would allow some of America's undocumented immigrants - at least eight million, 60% Mexican - to work legally in the US for a fixed period.

Many see the plan as a bid by President Bush for the Hispanic vote in this year's presidential election.

"He wants their sweat and labour, but he ultimately doesn't want them," said New Jersey Democrat Bob Menendez.

Bush's proposals
Allows estimated 8m illegal immigrant workers chance to work legally in the country for a fixed period
Will gain legal status for an initial period of three years if can prove they have jobs
Will be able to travel freely between US and their home countries
Workers can apply for guest worker status at a US company if it is proved no US citizen can take the job
Can apply for green card giving permanent residency in US, although Mr Bush said there would be no special preference for such workers
The programme would not offer workers permanent residency or citizenship.

"[The programme] rewards business over immigrants by providing them with a permanent pool of disenfranchised temporary workers who could easily be exploited" Democratic presidential hopeful Senator John Kerry said.

Also running for the Democratic nomination, Senator Joseph Lieberman said the president had made "an election-year conversion".

Mr Bush has also come under fire from within his own party over the scheme.

"I'm not for allowing illegals to stay in this country. I think they should have to go back... and get in line... and apply for a guest worker position," Republican representative Virgil Goode of Virginia said.

'American dream'

But the measures have been welcomed by some American businesses and by Mexican President Vicente Fox who said the plan recognises "the value of the Mexican men and women who find themselves working in the US."

Protesters against illegal immigration
Tensions over illegal immigrants run high in some communities
President Bush said America needed an immigration policy that "reflects the American dream".

"As a nation that values immigrants and depends on immigrants, we should have immigration laws that work and make us proud."

But that was not the case, the president said.

"Instead we see many employers turning to the illegal labour market. We see millions of hard-working working men and women condemned to fear and insecurity in a massive undocumented economy."

Security

The president argued that a more rational and more humane immigration law will make Americans safer as the government will have a better idea of who is crossing US borders.

IMMIGRATION 1998-2001
1.5m illegal immigrants are repatriated
1,224 die attempting to reach the US, of whom:
400 die of thirst in the desert
300 drown in the Rio Grande
"America must control its borders. This duty has become more urgent since 11 September," the president said, outlining the measures taken so far to step up security at ports of entry to the US.

He also stressed that the proposals would not offer a blanket amnesty for people in the US illegally.

The US Chamber of Commerce, which represents three million businesses, has been lobbying for the proposed measures.

"We have 10.5 million illegal workers in the United States right now," according to US Chamber of Commerce President Thomas Donohue.

Caution and criticism

President Bush entered office in 2000 pledging to reform immigration policy, but the issue was put on hold following the 11 September 2001 attacks.

Some Hispanic groups remain cautious, however.

"We really want to see some sincere policy outcomes and see something that really helps the immigrant community and not just the Bush campaign," said Michele Waslin of the National Council of La Raza.

Those working in the field of immigration law also expressed doubts.

"The hype and misinformation that this speech will fuel in the immigrant community will be huge. Unfortunately, the excitement will far outweigh the real effect," Jeff Goldman, an immigration lawyer with Boston law firm Testa, Hurwitz and Thibeault told Reuters.





WATCH AND LISTEN
The BBC's Daniel Sandford
"Up to four million British people go to America each year"



SEE ALSO:
Why Mexicans are sceptical
08 Jan 04  |  Americas
Will US immigration law overhaul work?
07 Jan 04  |  Have Your Say
Latino workers 'send home $30bn'
25 Nov 03  |  Business
Wealth gap hits Hispanics in US
18 Nov 03  |  Americas
Hispanics overtake blacks in US
19 Jun 03  |  Americas
Latino culture sweeps across US
05 Nov 03  |  Americas
Washington DC: A city of immigrants
12 Jun 03  |  Americas


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