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Pipelines

Europe's energy security relies heavily on Russia's gas and oil pipeline network. Almost all existing pipelines head west, feeding Europe's thirst for energy.

Neighbouring countries that 'host' the pipelines generally get to keep some, but Russia has asked some of them - most notably Ukraine - to pay global market prices, triggering angry responses.

It is now building a major new pipeline across the Baltic Sea, which will bypass transit countries and provide direct access to the EU.

Map showing main oil and gas pipelines, existing and proposed, in and around Russia

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