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Welfare state

The 1942 Beveridge report was a milestone document which laid the foundations for a welfare state which would tackle the "five giants": want, disease, idleness, squalor and ignorance.

Security from "cradle to grave" was the catchphrase, and implementing many of the report's recommendations was a key plank of Clement Attlee's "winning the peace" election campaign in 1945.

But schooling had already been shaken up before the end of the war.

The 1944 Education Act, steered by Conservative minister RAB Butler, raised the school leaving age to 15 and established the principle of free education for all, with the 11-plus exam for grammar school entrance.

Sir William Beveridge
Sir William Beveridge's report was a milestone document
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