Prison officers have voted overwhelmingly to turn down a 2.2% pay deal, raising the prospect of renewed confrontation with the government.
Prison officers are still in dispute over 2007's pay deal
The Prison Officers Association said 85% of members in England and Wales cast ballots rejecting the offer, which it described as "disgraceful".
Justice Secretary Jack Straw accepted a pay review body's recommendations of a 2.2% rise from April 2008.
An injunction preventing officers from taking industrial action is in force.
A POA spokesman said the award was below inflation and would spark anger among members
He added: "We were hoping that this year's award would reflect the fact that we are still in dispute over last year's pay."
Mr Straw has said that the increase was consistent with the government's public sector pay target of 2%.
The union was involved in a dispute in 2007 after the government decided to phase a 2.5% pay rise in two stages.
A High Court injunction preventing officers from walking out in a wildcat strike was imposed, and then extended to 8 May 2008.