Page last updated at 04:03 GMT, Saturday, 13 December 2008

Mood mixed as climate summit ends

By Richard Black
Environment correspondent, BBC News website, Poznan

Man in polar bear costume hitching to Copenhagen
After Poznan, eyes are turning to Copenhagen

The UN climate summit has ended with delegates taking very different views on how much it has achieved.

Western delegates said progress here had been encouraging, but environment groups said rich countries had not shown enough ambition.

Developing nations were angry that more money was not put forward to protect against climate impacts.

The meeting is the halfway point on a two-year process aimed at reaching a deal in Copenhagen by the end of 2009.

As envisaged at last year's conference in Bali, that agreement is supposed to have two major elements - an expanded Kyoto Protocol-style deal committing industrialised countries to deeper emission cuts in the mid-term, perhaps by 2020, and a longer-term agreement encompassing all countries.

"The conference enabled us to make real progress on every topic on the Bali roadmap," said Martin Bursik, Environment Minister of the Czech Republic, which assumes the EU presidency in January.

"All the elements exist for us to reach an efficient and equitable agreement in Copenhagen."

Work plans agreed for both "tracks"
Discussions enter "full negotiating mode"
Management of UN Adaptation Fund agreed
Funds can now be disbursed
Programme agreed to improve roll-out of low-carbon technologies
Parameters established of agreement on reducing deforestation
"Recognition" that science indicates need for emissions to peak and begin to decline within 10-15 years

But the comments of Tim Jones of the World Development Movement summed up the feelings of many groups campaigning for environmental protection and poverty alleviation.

"There has been disappointingly little progress on the agreement reached last year in Bali," he said.

"Yet again the rich countries, who carry the historical responsibility for climate change, have failed to offer sufficient cuts."

There was also disappointment that the energy and climate deal reached by EU heads of state in Brussels had been watered down at the last minute.

Funding gap

The only concrete decision of any major significance concerned the management of the Adaptation Fund, which gathers money to help poorer countries protect their societies and economies against the impacts of climate change.

Martin Bursik
Czech Environment Minister Martin Bursik spoke of 'real progress'
Developing countries lobbied for easier access to the money, and they won the day.

The money comes from a 2% levy on carbon trading under the UN Clean Development Mechanism, which aims to fund projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries.

The decision means that adaptation money can begin to flow at some point next year.

But there is general acknowledgment that the current level of funds - about $80m - is far lower than will be needed.

To bridge the gap, developing countries wanted greatly to expand the levy to cover other kinds of carbon trade. This would have multiplied the amount of money going into the fund by at least an order of magnitude.

When western nations declined to support the plan, many developing countries expressed their anger.

"It is not clear how a 'strong political signal' can be sent by not paying for pollution that you have caused," said Pakistan's delegate Farrukh Khan.

"We would have hoped that our partners would have taken this necessary step on the road to Copenhagen; but unfortunately the road to Copenhagen is being paved with good intentions."

Speaking to reporters after the meeting closed, the UN's top climate official hinted that western nations had been playing a negotiating card.

"Doing a deal in Copenhagen is, to an important extent, about engaging developing countries," said Yvo de Boer, executive secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

"And an important part of engaging countries is providing funds. Politically, this was not the time to do it."

Step change

If the Copenhagen talks are to reach an agreement, most observers said the pace of discussions would have to increase markedly.

"They're going to have to enter full negotiating mode - full speed ahead," said Angela Ledford-Anderson, director of the international global warming programme with the Pew Environment Group.

"But President-elect Barack Obama has said he's going to engage vigorously, so that brings new hope; and we've seen a number of developing countries really stepping up to the plate."

The next 12 months will bring a series of meetings at official level, and a draft negotiating text for Copenhagen should emerge by June.

In the immediate future, eyes turn to Australia, which is due to announce its climate change policy on Monday.

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