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Last Updated: Friday, 31 October, 2003, 11:14 GMT
In pictures: Valley of change
House in Tirah valley, Pakistan tribal area
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Pakistan's Tirah valley on the Afghan border has a history of kidnappings and feuds. Its houses are often built with lookouts to cover all approaches. (Photos and script: Umer Afridi)
Road in Tirah valley, Pakistan tribal area
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Now new roads are coming to the remote area - some districts had never seen tarmac. For some tribesmen, though, it is like "letting strangers into our house".
Solar panel work in Tirah valley, Pakistan
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Still, modernisation marches on - some houses use Chinese-made solar panels for electricity. Diesel engines and petrol generators are widely used.
Flour mill, Tirah valley, Pakistan
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But tradition remains a counterpoint. As ever, water mills are relied upon to grind corn flour.
Singers, Tirah valley, Pakistan
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Songs and dancing also continue to reflect the harsh life in this difficult terrain.
Boys ready to marry in Tirah valley, Pakistan
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Boys still marry young - their brides can help in the home and it keeps them from illicit relationships that often spark honour killings.
Man and boy in the Tirah valley, Pakistan
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The old and the new. The traditional headgear of the elderly is going out of fashion, while boys often swap the Kalashnikov for the schoolbag.
Sikhs in Tirah valley, Pakistan
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Sikhs have a peaceful existence here - though they colour their clothing for identification. Trading, considered lowly by the dominant Pashtoons, is their forte.

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